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Published by anantheshk

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: anantheshk on Jul 22, 2010
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08/02/2012

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Table of content
(Last update: 05-19-2010)
Synthesis
on attachment.........................................................................................................iThe impact of attachment to mother and father at an early age on children’s psychosocialdevelopment through young adulthood
(Revised edition)
 
 Karin Grossmann and Klaus E. Grossmann
.......................................................................1-8Disorganization of attachment strategies in infancy and childhood
(Revised edition)
 
 Kate Hennighausen and Karlen Lyons-Ruth
......................................................................1-7
 
Attachment at an early age (0-5) and its impact on children’s development
Marinus van IJzendoorn
.....................................................................................................1-5
 
Attachment in early childhood: Comments on van IJzendoorn, and Grossmann andGrossmann
Greg Moran
........................................................................................................................1-4Attachment and its impact on child development: Comments on van IJzendoorn,Grossmann and Grossmann, and Hennighausen and Lyons-Ruth
Charles H. Zeanah Jr. and Prachi Shah
.............................................................................1-6The impact of attachment-based interventions on the quality of attachment among infantsand young children
(Revised edition)
 
Mary Dozier and Kristin Bernard 
.......................................................................................1-5Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating families and orphanages
Marinus H. van IJzendoorn & Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg 
....................................1-7Attachment-based intervention and prevention programs for young children
(Revised edition)
 
 Byron Egeland 
....................................................................................................................1-7
 
Efficacy of attachment-based interventions
(Revised edition)
 
 Diane Benoit 
.......................................................................................................................1-5Attachment-based interventions: Comments on Dozier, Egeland, and Benoit
Sheree L. Toth
.....................................................................................................................1-4
 
Supporting families to build secure attachment relationships: Comments on Benoit,Dozier, and Egeland
 Femmie Juffer, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn
.......1-7Early day care and infant-mother attachment security
 Jay Belsky
............................................................................................................................1-6
 
 
To read Voices from the Field on these articles, consult the Encyclopedia at
:
 
 
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
 
©
2006 Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development
 
i
 Synthesis on attachment
(Published online November 26, 2006)
 
How important is it?
 All infants require attention, comfort and a sense of security. Infants who feelthreatened will turn to their caregiver for protection and comfort; over time, thecaregiver’s response helps mold the relationship into a pattern of interaction.Bowlby’s attachment theorydescribes the importance of the early relationship thatdevelops between the infant and the primary caregiver. This affective bond, calledattachment, provides the foundation for the child’s later social, emotional and evencognitive development. In addition, attachment relationships continue to influencethoughts, feelings, motives and close relationships throughout life.Research shows that secure attachment is a protective factor that leads to moreoptimal developmental outcomes, while children with insecure attachment are moreprone to social and maladjustment problems and children with disorganizedattachment are at highest risk for psychopathology and poor outcomes.
What do we know?
 To assess the quality of attachment in infancy, researchers often use a standardizedseparation-reunion method called theStrange Situation Procedure, in which infants’ reactions to being reunited with their caregiver after a brief separation are used toassess how much trust the children have in the accessibility of their attachmentfigure.There are four patterns of infant-caregiver attachment. Infants who actively seekproximity to their caregivers on reunion, communicate their feelings of stress anddistress openly and then readily return to exploration are classified as
secure
. Thistype of attachmentis believed to develop when the caregiver consistently respondsto the child’s distress in a sensitive manner. Infants who ignore or avoid thecaregiver after being reunited are classified as
insecure-avoidant 
. This is believed todevelop when the caregiver consistently responds to the child’s distress in ways thatare rejecting.Infants who combine strong contact maintenance with contact resistance, or whoremain inconsolable without being able to return to explore the environment, areclassified as
insecure-ambivalent 
. This develops when the caregiver responds in waysthat are inconsistent and unpredictable. Finally, some infants do not seem able toresort to a single, organized attachment pattern. This is called
disorganized 
attachment, and is believed to develop when the caregiver displays unusual andultimately frightening behaviours in the presence of the child.

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