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Table Of Contents

1.1 The physics of the early universe: an overview
1.1.1 The middle-age cosmology
1.1.2 Inflationary theories
1.1.3 Links between cosmology and particle physics
1.1.4 Basic questions and tentative answers
2.1 Aspects of general relativity
2.1.1 The equivalence principle
2.1.2 Applications of gravitational time dilation
2.2 The energy–momentum tensor
2.2.1 Relativistic fluid mechanics
2.3 The field equations
2.3.1 Newtonian limit
2.3.2 Pressure as a source of gravity
2.3.3 Energy density of the vacuum
2.4 The Friedmann models
2.4.1 Cosmological coordinates
2.4.2 The redshift
2.4.3 Dynamics of the expansion
2.4.4 Solutions to the Friedmann equation
2.4.5 Horizons
2.4.6 Observations in cosmology
2.4.7 The meaning of an expanding universe
2.5 Inflationary cosmology
2.5.1 Inflation field dynamics
2.5.2 Ending inflation
2.5.3 Relic fluctuations from inflation
2.5.4 Gravity waves and tilt
2.5.5 Evidence for vacuum energy at late times
2.5.6 Cosmic coincidence
2.6 Dynamics of structure formation
2.6.1 Linear perturbations
2.6.2 Dynamical effects of radiation
2.6.3 The peculiar velocity field
2.6.4 Transfer functions
2.6.5 The spherical model
2.7 Quantifying large-scale structure
2.7.1 Fourier analysis of density fluctuations
2.7.2 The CDM model
2.7.3 Karhunen–Lo`eve and all that
2.7.4 Projection on the sky
2.7.5 Nonlinear clustering: a problem for CDM?
2.7.6 Real-space and redshift-space clustering
2.7.7 The state of the art in LSS
2.7.8 Galaxy formation and biased clustering
2.8 Cosmic background fluctuations
2.8.1 The hot big bang and the microwave background
2.8.2 Mechanisms for primary fluctuations
2.8.3 The temperature power spectrum
2.8.4 Large-scale fluctuations and CMB power spectrum
2.8.5 Predictions of CMB anisotropies
2.8.6 Geometrical degeneracy
2.8.7 Small-scale data and outlook
References
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Spacetime
3.1.2 Field equations
3.1.3 Matter description
3.1.4 Cosmology
3.2 1+3 covariant description: variables
3.2.1 Average 4-velocity of matter
3.2.2 Kinematic quantities
3.2.3 Matter tensor
3.2.4 Electromagnetic field
3.2.5 Weyl tensor
3.3 1+3 Covariant description: equations
3.3.1 Energy–momentum conservation equations
3.3.2 Ricci identities
3.3.3 Bianchi identities
3.3.4 Implications
3.3.5 Shear-free dust
3.4 Tetrad description
3.4.1 General tetrad formalism
3.4.2 Tetrad formalism in cosmology
3.4.3 Complete set
3.5 Models and symmetries
3.5.1 Symmetries of cosmologies
3.5.2 Classification of cosmological symmetries
3.6 Friedmann–Lemaˆıtre models
3.6.1 Phase planes and evolutionary paths
3.6.2 Spatial topology
3.6.3 Growth of inhomogeneity
3.7 Bianchi universes (s =3)
3.8.3 Small universes
3.8.4 Observations in anisotropic and inhomogeneous models
3.8.5 Proof of almost-FL geometry
3.8.6 Importance of consistency checks
3.9 Explaining homogeneity and structure
3.9.1 Showing initial conditions are irrelevant
3.9.2 The explanation of initial conditions
3.9.3 The irremovable problem
3.10 Conclusion
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Brief history of inflation
4.2.1 Chaotic inflation
4.3 Quantum fluctuations in the inflationary universe
4.4 Quantum fluctuations and density perturbations
4.5 From the big bang theory to the theory of eternal inflation
4.6 (P)reheating after inflation
4.7 Conclusions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The SM of particle physics
5.2.1 The Higgs mechanism and vector boson masses
5.2.2 Fermion masses
5.2.3 Successes and difficulties of the SM
5.3 The dark matter problem: experimental evidence
5.4 Lepton number violation and neutrinos as HDM candidates
5.4.1 Experimental limits on neutrino masses
5.4.2 Neutrino masses in the SM and beyond
5.4.3 Thermal history of neutrinos
5.4.4 HDM and structure formation
5.5 Low-energy SUSY and DM
5.5.1 Neutralinos as the LSP in SUSY models
5.5.2 Neutralinos in the minimal supersymmetric SM
5.5.3 Thermal history of neutralinos and CDM
5.5.4 CDM models and structure formation
5.6 Warm dark matter
5.6.1 Thermal history of light gravitinos and WDM models
5.7 Dark energy, CDM and xCDM or QCDM
6.2 Superconformal symmetry, supergravity and cosmology
6.3 Gravitino production after inflation
6.4 Super-Higgs effect in cosmology
6.5 MP→∞limit
7.1 A brief historical perspective
7.2 Physics of temperature fluctuations
7.2.1 Causes of temperature fluctuations
7.2.2 A formal description
7.2.3 Tight coupling
7.2.4 Free-streaming
7.2.5 Diffusion damping
7.2.6 The resulting power spectrum
7.3 Physics of polarization fluctuations
7.3.1 Stokes parameters
7.3.2 Thomson scattering and the quadrupolar source
7.3.3 Harmonic expansions and power spectra
7.4 Acoustic oscillations
7.4.1 An oscillator equation
7.4.2 Initial conditions
7.4.3 Coherent oscillations
7.4.4 The effect of baryons
7.5 Cosmological models and constraints
7.5.1 A space of models
7.5.2 Physical quantities
7.5.3 Power spectrum degeneracies
7.5.4 Idealized experiments
7.5.5 Current constraints and upcoming experiments
7.6 Model-independent cosmological constraints
7.6.1 Flatness
7.6.2 Coherent acoustic oscillations
7.6.3 Adiabatic primordial perturbations
7.6.4 Gaussian primordial perturbations
7.6.5 Tensor or vector perturbations
7.6.6 Reionization redshift
7.6.7 Magnetic fields
7.6.8 The topology of the universe
8.1.3 The galactic halo
8.1.4 Strategies for WIMP direct detection
8.2 Phonon-mediated particle detection
8.2.1 Basic principles
8.2.2 The energy absorber
8.2.3 Phonon sensors
8.3 Innovative techniques based on phonon-mediated devices
8.3.1 Basic principles of double readout detectors
8.3.2 CDMS, EDELWEISS and CRESST experiments
8.3.3 Discussion of the CDMS results
8.4 Other innovative techniques
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The highly radiopure∼100 kg NaI(Tl) set-up
9.3 Investigation of the WIMP annual modulation signature
9.3.1 Results of the model-independent approach
9.3.3 Results of a model-dependent analysis
9.4 DAMA annual modulation result versus CDMS exclusion plot
9.5 Conclusion
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Three-neutrino mixing and oscillations
10.3 Analysis of the atmospheric data
10.4 Analysis of the solar data
10.4.1 Total rates and expectations
10.4.2 Two-flavour oscillations in vacuum
10.4.3 Two-flavour oscillations in matter
10.4.4 Three-flavour oscillations in matter
10.5 Conclusions
11.1 Synopsis
11.2 The cosmological framework
11.2.1 Friedmann cosmological background
11.2.2 Observables in cosmology
11.2.3 Applications
11.3 Galaxy surveys
11.3.1 Overview
11.3.2 Survey strategies and selection methods
11.3.3 Galaxy counts and evolution
11.3.4 Colour selection techniques
11.3.5 Star formation history in the universe
11.4 Cluster surveys
11.4.1 Clusters as cosmological probes
11.4.2 Cluster search methods
11.4.3 Determining m and
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The clustering of galaxies
12.3 Our distorted view of the galaxy distribution
12.4 Is the universe fractal?
12.4.1 Scaling laws
12.4.2 Observational evidences
12.4.3 Scaling in Fourier space
12.5.1 The REFLEX cluster survey
12.5.2 ‘Peaks and valleys’ in the power spectrum
12.6 Conclusions
14.1 Introduction
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Modern Cosmology Silvio Bonometto

Modern Cosmology Silvio Bonometto

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Published by ertipole
Department of Physics, University of Milan—Bicocca, Milan Cosmology is a new science, but cosmological questions are as old as mankind. Turning philosophical and metaphysical problems into problems that physics can

treat and hopefully solve has been an achievement of the 20th century. The main contributions have come from the discovery of galaxies and the invention of a

relativistic theory of gravitation..
The physics of the early universe. An introduction to the physics of cosmology John A Peacock. Aspects of general relativity. The equivalence principle. The energy–momentum tensor. The Friedmann models. Gravity waves and tilt. Cosmological models George F R Ellis. Spacetime. Field equations. Friedmann–Lemaıtre

models. Inflationary cosmology and creation of matter in the universe Andrei D Linde. Dark matter and particle physics Antonio Masiero and Silvia Pascoli. Supergravity and cosmology Renata Kallosh. The cosmic microwave background Arthur Kosowsky. Dark matter search with innovative techniques Andrea Giuliani. Signature for signals from the dark universe The DAMA Collaboration. Neutrino oscillations: a phenomenological overview Gian Luigi Fogli. Highlights in modern observational cosmology Piero Rosati. Clustering in the universe: from highly nonlinear structures to homogeneity Luigi Guzzo. The debate on galaxy space distribution: an overview Marco Montuori and Luciano Pietronero. Gravitational lensing Philippe Jetzer. Numerical simulations in cosmology Anatoly Klypin. Dark matter halos. Halo profiles: convergence study.
Department of Physics, University of Milan—Bicocca, Milan Cosmology is a new science, but cosmological questions are as old as mankind. Turning philosophical and metaphysical problems into problems that physics can

treat and hopefully solve has been an achievement of the 20th century. The main contributions have come from the discovery of galaxies and the invention of a

relativistic theory of gravitation..
The physics of the early universe. An introduction to the physics of cosmology John A Peacock. Aspects of general relativity. The equivalence principle. The energy–momentum tensor. The Friedmann models. Gravity waves and tilt. Cosmological models George F R Ellis. Spacetime. Field equations. Friedmann–Lemaıtre

models. Inflationary cosmology and creation of matter in the universe Andrei D Linde. Dark matter and particle physics Antonio Masiero and Silvia Pascoli. Supergravity and cosmology Renata Kallosh. The cosmic microwave background Arthur Kosowsky. Dark matter search with innovative techniques Andrea Giuliani. Signature for signals from the dark universe The DAMA Collaboration. Neutrino oscillations: a phenomenological overview Gian Luigi Fogli. Highlights in modern observational cosmology Piero Rosati. Clustering in the universe: from highly nonlinear structures to homogeneity Luigi Guzzo. The debate on galaxy space distribution: an overview Marco Montuori and Luciano Pietronero. Gravitational lensing Philippe Jetzer. Numerical simulations in cosmology Anatoly Klypin. Dark matter halos. Halo profiles: convergence study.

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Published by: ertipole on Jul 22, 2010
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