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Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk From Cell PhoneBase Stations

Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk From Cell PhoneBase Stations

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Published by karlmalatesta
The brilliant finnish scientist Mikko Ahonen has published a document that is destined to become a classic in bioelectromagnetic research. Together with top researchers on the planet, Dr. Ahonen has demonstrated again what more than 100 years of medical research have shown in the past: that the exposure of human beings to unnatural microwaves and radiofrequency sources is pertinent to cause disease and death. As of this date, the great majority of studies that have been conducted in the immediate proximity of cell phone base stations have demonstrated grave neurological compromise that is damaging the health of the patients who alive around these structures. The denial of such an effect by the engineers and physicists who run the Electromagnetic Fields Project of the World Health Organisation is an objective proof of the criminal vested interests of Nokia, Eriksson, Sansung, Motorola and Sony, that the WHO is willing to defend. In the measure that people are dying around cell phone antennas around the world, the criminal prosecution of Emily Perkins van Deventer and Michael Repacholi has become an objective historical need.
The brilliant finnish scientist Mikko Ahonen has published a document that is destined to become a classic in bioelectromagnetic research. Together with top researchers on the planet, Dr. Ahonen has demonstrated again what more than 100 years of medical research have shown in the past: that the exposure of human beings to unnatural microwaves and radiofrequency sources is pertinent to cause disease and death. As of this date, the great majority of studies that have been conducted in the immediate proximity of cell phone base stations have demonstrated grave neurological compromise that is damaging the health of the patients who alive around these structures. The denial of such an effect by the engineers and physicists who run the Electromagnetic Fields Project of the World Health Organisation is an objective proof of the criminal vested interests of Nokia, Eriksson, Sansung, Motorola and Sony, that the WHO is willing to defend. In the measure that people are dying around cell phone antennas around the world, the criminal prosecution of Emily Perkins van Deventer and Michael Repacholi has become an objective historical need.

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Published by: karlmalatesta on Jul 22, 2010
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Human populations are increasingly exposed tomicrowave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wire-less communication technology, including mobilephones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phonebase stations. Seven of these studies explored the asso-ciation between base station proximity and neurobe-havioral effects and three investigated cancer. Wefound that eight of the 10 studies reported increasedprevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms orcancer in populations living at distances < 500 metersfrom base stations. None of the studies reported expo-sure above accepted international guidelines, suggest-ing that current guidelines may be inadequate in pro-tecting the health of human populations. We believethat comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its healthimpact.
Key words 
: base stations; electromagnetic field(EMF); epidemiology; health effects; mobile phone;radiofrequency (RF); electromagnetic radiation.
INT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH 2010;16:263–267
INTRODUCTION
Mobile phone base stations are now found ubiquitously in communities worldwide. They are frequently foundnear or on shops, homes, schools, daycare centers, andhospitals (Figure 1). The radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic radiation from these base stations is regardedas being low power; however, their output is continu-ous.
1
This raises the question as to whether the healthof people residing or working in close proximity to basestations is at any risk.
METHODS
By searching PubMed and using keywords such as basestation, mast, electromagnetic field (EMF), radiofre-quency (RF), epidemiology, health effects, mobilephone, and cell phone, and by searching the refer-ences of primary sources, we were able to find only 10human population studies from seven countries that examined the health effects of mobile phone base sta-tions. Seven of the studies explored the associationbetween base station proximity and neurobehavioralsymptoms via population-based questionnaires; theother three retrospectively explored the associationbetween base station proximity and cancer via medicalrecords.A meta-analysis based on this literature is not possible due to differences in study design, statisticalmeasures/risk estimates, exposure categories, and end-points/outcomes. The 10 studies are therefore summa-rized in chronological order (Table 1).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 We found epidemiological studies pertaining to thehealth effects of mobile phone base station RF emis-sions to be quite consistent in pointing to a possibleadverse health impact. Eight of the 10 studies reportedincreased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symp-toms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500meters from base stations. The studies by Navarro et al.,
2
Santini et al.,
3
Gadzicka et al.,
4
and Hutter et al.
5
reported differences in the distance-dependent preva-lence of symptoms such as headache, impaired con-centration, and irritability, while Abdel-Rassoul et al.
6
also found lower cognitive performance in individualsliving
10 meters from base stations compared with themore distant control group. The studies by Eger et al.
7
and Wolfand Wolf 
8
reported increased incidence of cancer in persons living for several years < 400 metersfrom base stations. By contrast, the large retrospectivestudy by Meyer et al.
9
found no increased incidence of cancer near base stations in Bavaria. Blettner et al.
10
reported in Phase 1 of their study that more healthproblems were found closer to base stations, but inPhase 2
11
concluded that measured EMF emissions were not related to adverse health effects (Table 1).Each of the 10 studies reviewed by us had variousstrengths and limitations as summarized in Table 1. Per-
263
Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Riskfrom Mobile Phone Base Stations
VINI G. KHURANA, LENNART HARDELL, JORIS EVERAERT, ALICJA BORTKIEWICZ,MICHAEL CARLBERG, MIKKO AHONEN
Received from: Department of Neurosurgery, The Canberra Hos-pital, The Australian National University Medical School, Garran, Australia (VGK); Department of Oncology, University Hospital,Orebro, Sweden (LH, MC); Research Institute for Nature and Forest [INBO], Brussels, Belgium (JE); Department of Work Physiology and Ergonomics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz,Poland (AB); Department of Computer Science, University Hospital,Orebro, Sweden (MA). Send correspondence to: Dr. Vini G. Khu-rana, Department of Neurosurgery, The Canberra Hospital, PO Box103, Woden ACT 2606, Australia; email: <vgkhurana@gmail.com>.
 Disclosures 
: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
 
taining to those base station studies in which EMF meas-urements were not carried out,
3,4,7,9
it should be notedthat distance is not the most suitable classifier for expo-sure to RF-EMF. Antennae numbers and configurations,as well as the absorption and reflection of their fields by houses, trees, or other geographic hindrances may influence the exposure level. Further, self-estimation of distance to nearest base station is not the best predictorof exposure since the location of the closest base stationis not always known. Such exposure misclassificationinevitably biases any association towards null. Multipletesting might also produce spurious results if not adjusted for,
3,5
as might failure to adjust for participant age and gender.
7
Latency is also an important consider-ation in the context of cancer incidence following orduring a putative environmental exposure. In thisregard, the study by Meyer et al.
9
found no associationbetween mobile phone base station exposure andcancer incidence, but had a relatively limited observa-tion period of only two years. On the other hand, thestudies by Eger et al.
7
and Wolf and Wolf 
8
found a sig-nificant association between mobile phone base stationexposure and increased cancer incidence, although theapproximate five-year latency between base stationexposure and cancer diagnosis appears to be unexpect-edly short in both of these studies.Other problems in several population-based ques-tionnaires are the potential for bias, especially selection
8
and participation
2,3,5,6,11
biases, and self-reporting of outcomes in combination with the exposure assessment methods used. For example, regarding limitations inexposure assessment, in a large two-phase base stationstudy from Germany,
12,13
of the Phase 1 participants (n =30,047), only 1326 (4.4%) participated with a single“spot” EMF measurement recorded in the bedroom forPhase 2. Further, health effect contributions from allrelevant EMF sources and other non-EMF environmen-tal sources need to be taken into account.
12
 We acknowl-edge that participant concern instead of exposurecould be the triggering factor of adverse health effects,however this “nocebo effect” does not appear to fully explain the findings.
4,5
Further, the biological relevanceof the overall adverse findings (Table 1) is supported by the fact that some of the symptoms in these base-stationstudies have also been reported among mobile phoneusers, such as headaches, concentration difficulties, andsleep disorders.
13,14
Finally, none of the studies that found adverse health effects of base stations reportedRF exposures above accepted international guidelines,the implication being that if such findings continue tobe reproduced, current exposure standards are inade-quate in protecting human populations.
15
264Khurana et al.
www.ijoeh.comINT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH
Figure 1—Mobile phone base stations ("antennae" or "masts") in Australia. Upper left: Community shop roof showing plethora of flat panel antennae. Upper right: Hospital roof with flat panel antennae painted to blend in. Lower left:Top of a street light pole. Lower center: Mast erected next to a daycare center. Lower right: Antennae mounted onan office block top floor.

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