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Content-based,Task-based,and Participatory Approaches

Content-based,Task-based,and Participatory Approaches

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Published by Demet YEŞİLDAĞ

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Published by: Demet YEŞİLDAĞ on Jul 23, 2010
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Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches
1
Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory ApproachesCONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION
Content ±based instruction, as its name offers, focuses on learning target language through thesubject matter. That¶s, while students learn about a specific field, they also learn targetlanguage together with the particular subject. This content may be academic. The methodsuggests that the content is more important than language skills. But language skills are nor completely ignored. The subject should be paralel to target language. Because of the fact thatstudents study on diffucult subjects in addition to target language, target language should beclear during the course. If not, they will possibly have troubles with both target language andthe subject. The teacher who uses this method plays a mediator role. Students are dealt withacademic subjects and vocabulary in high level. So the instructor helps the class. This reflectsthe humanistic side of the teacher. The teacher doesn¶t neglect the previous experiences of thestudents. She/he asks about their early acquintances related to the subject. Doing sotheteacher activates their schemata which encourages the students and arouses their interests.Themethod asserts that the vocabulary items and grammer should be taught in a contex rather than given isolated. Also the teacher should inform the students about what they will learn inthe course beforehand.Content-based instruction arouses from the communicative needs. Think that a group of  people work on a specific area such as medicine and they are expected not to use their nativelanguage, they need to use the target language for their specific purpose. This instructionmethod is based on implementing specific purposes through target language. The Content- based instruction has three models; ³
 Immersion
´
,
 Adjunct Model 
´
, and ³
Sheltered- Language
´
. Immersion
is a method of teaching a second language in which the targetlanguage is used as a tool for teaching the subject. The main purpose of teacher is to teach thegiven subject.
The adjunct model 
represents learning the specific subjects through the help of target language. In this method, there are two teachers and two seperate classes one of whichis academic class and the other is language class. Language teacher helps the students tounderstand the missing points represented by the subject teacher. There is a cooperation between the classes. On the other hand,
 sheltered-language instruction
offers an advantage of learning the target language and the academic couses jointly. In this method, there is oneteacher who masters both the academic course and the target language.
 
Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches
2
This provides an opportunity for the students that they do not have to spend their time onlearning the academic course and the target language distinctively. Especially in this methodthe target language should be given as related to the subject. The academic classes can betaught by a native speaker or non-native speaker. Teacher helps the students to develop boththeir language proficiency and the content proficiency.There is one more aprroach related to the content-based instruction: the Whole LanguageApproach. The approach suggests that the target language should be taught all in one ,not in pieces.It propeses coordination of the skills. The language skills should be gained through awhole text. The text the teacher chooses should contain the language skills so that the studentscan develop their language skills as a whole. This appoach supports one another approach
´
the Language Experience Approach
´
. This approach is based on the learner¶s experincesLearners can be higly motivated to learning the target language by this way. The content isrelated to their own experinces and attracts their interest. They will enjoy using the targetlanguage to tell their experinces. It is believed that the most effective way of learning iswriting and the acceptable writing techniques are process writing and journal keeping. In process writing, students interact with each other and the teacher, they can make brainstorming and they are given to a feedback by the teacher during the writing process.This is named as ³process-oriented
´
avtivity. This will be helpful for the students to identifytheir missings or errors and correct them. If the students have no chance to choice a topic ontheir own, they have problems on writing process. The teacher doesn¶t involve in the processin any way. This is ³product-oriented
´
activity and is not a useful way of learning.All of these models can be effective in learning the target language. But the third model is themost constructive one in terms of learning the target language and academic subjects.
TASK-BASED INSTRUCTION
Before defining the instruction in detail, it should be clarified what the task means. A task is³a specific activity to perform an assigned piece of work, often finished within a certaintime.
´
(
http://www.seslisozluk.com/?word=task 
)
. The method is a learner-based instruction.The instruction focuses on a work which students are expected to fulfill by using the targetlanguage. It is believed that task is more related to doing something with a language. Becausetask needs so many language skills and items to be completed.
 
Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches
3
As a practice of task-based instruction, a specific task is given to students by the teacher whois in favour of learner involvement. This task is partly completed by the students and teacher.Teacher interacts with students by asking them some questions. They attend the courseactively. The native language of the students cannot be used during the class. Studentscomplete the given task hand in hand which provides a peer-learning. Teacher shows themhow to implement a task by working together with the class. This period is named as pre-task stage. Pre-task stage enables the students to do the next task correctly. That¶s it prepares themfor the next task which they will fullfil individually or working in a group. After they learnhow to complete a task, they are expected to manage the rest of the task with their groups.Students discuss about the task and share their ideas. An information gap activity alsoemerges. They also evaluate their task by themselves which provides a peer-evaluation. Theactivity which the students complete the rest of the task after learning the ways of it is calledas while-task. It can be also named as ongoing-task. After the while task, the students areexpected to do a new task working in groups. The subject of the task will be different from thecompleted one. By this way, students can practice with their acquintances on the new task.They plan the task, identify the steps and then gather information and share their ideas. At theend, they will produce something on their own. This satage is called as the post-task. Whilethe students try to complete a post-task, they do an opinion-gap activity. Also an interractionoccurs between students naturally.With the task-based activity students develop language skills and they use so many forms of the target language. This instruction method provides the students with so many skills of thetarget language.
PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
Participatory approach is based on solving the learner¶s problems in real life using the targetlanguage as a tool for this purpose. Learners bring their ouside problems into the class. Their  problems are discussed by the students and the teacher. There occurs an interraction betweenthem. The teacher is not the the authority but is a guider in this appoach. S/he helps them tosolve their problems and s/he shows some ways to them. S/he uses visuals to help them tounderstand the situation. Only the target language is used during the course. In deed, the main purpose is not teaching the target language but making solutions for the issues. This approachis not much related to the teaching language.

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