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GENERAL PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

GENERAL PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

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Published by khaled
General Pathological Conditions meat inspection abattoir
meat borne diseases
General Pathological Conditions meat inspection abattoir
meat borne diseases

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Published by: khaled on Jun 18, 2008
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05/13/2013

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General Pathological Conditions
GENERAL PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Fever (Pyrexia)
Fever isan abnormal elevated body temperature. It may be classified as septic and asepticaccording to the presence or non presence of an infection. In
septic fever 
the infection is causedby viruses, bacteria, bacterial toxins, protozoa and fungi.
 Aseptic 
fever may be caused by a)tissue necrosis as seen in muscle degradation due to intramuscular injection of necrotizingsubstances, in rapidly growing tumors undergoing necrosis or lyses of burned tissue; b) bychemicals or surgery. In former by an administration of drugs and in latter by breakdown of tissue and blood. c) During anaphylactic reaction of antibodies to the foreign antigens.Ante mortem findings
:
1.Chills and sweating2.Dehydration3.Elevated body temperature4.Increased pulse and respiration5.Depression and dullness
6.
Anorexia and constipation
 
In septic fever the other signs may include
7.
Diarrhea and vomiting
8.
Ruinous or phenol odor or breath9.Shock, convulsions and comaPostmortem findings
:
1.Rigor mortis2.Putrefaction3.Congestion of subcutaneous blood vessels and carcass4.Enlarged lymph nodes5.Evidence of cloudy swelling of liver, heart and kidneysJudgment:Carcass is
condemned 
if fever syndrome is associated with presence of bacteria or bacterial toxins in the blood and/or findings of drugs and antimicrobial substances.If typical signs of fevered carcass are not seen carcass should be held for 24 hours after slaughter and re-examined. In case of mild fevered syndrome detected first on postmorteminspection, the carcass may be
conditionally approved 
with heat treatment providing thatbacteriological and chemical test are negative.Differential diagnosis: Hyperthermia and septicemia. In hyperthermia the elevation of bodytemperature is caused by physical factors such
 
as high environmental temperature or prolongedmuscular exertion, particularly in humid weather.
Inflammation in viral diseases
Inflammationassociated with viral diseases is usually secondary to primary cellular change.Secondary bacterial infections frequently accompany and complicate viral diseases particularlyrespiratory and skin diseases. Viral infection associated with fever, malaise, anorexia or incoordination is attributed to absorption of injured cell products, viral toxicity and viral
By DR.KHALED fujairah municipality1
 
General Pathological Conditions
abnormalities which cause circulatory disturbances. Vascular shock together with viral toxicityand failure of one or more vital organs is thought to be associated with death in viral diseases.Peritonitis rumen jejunum & greater omentum arecovered by Fibrinous & purulent exudates
Septicemia
Septicemia isa morbid condition caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria and their associated toxins in the blood. The positive diagnosis of septicemia can only be made byisolation of the causative organism from the blood stream. This is not practiced on routine antemortem examination of animals in abattoirs; however, the evidence of septicemia is determinedby the ante mortem and postmortem findings.Ante mortem findings:1.Depression2.Changes in body temperature. The temperature is usually elevated but it can also benormal and subnormal during the terminal phases.3.Difficult and rapid breathing4.Shivering and muscle tremors
5.
Congestion or apothecial hemorrhages of conjunctivae, mouth and vulvae mucosaPostmortem findings:
1.
Enlarged edematous or hemorrhagic lymph nodes2.Degenerative changes in parenchymatous organs (liver, heart and kidneys)
3.
Congestion and apothecial or ecchymosed hemorrhages in kidney, heart surface, mucousand serous membranes, connective tissue and panniculus adipose4.Splenomegaly5.Inadequately bled-out carcass as a result of high fever 
6.
Blood stained serous exudates in abdominal and/or thoracic cavities.
7.
Anemia resulting from bone marrow depression and icitrus may also be present.One or more lesions may be absent. However if one significant lesion is present, such as,generalized acute lymphadenitis, the carcass must be condemned. All gross lesions in thecarcass and organs must be considered before the animal is judged septicemia.Septicemia is found in many infectious diseases including acute forms of salmonellas,leptospirosis, swine erysipelas, and hog cholera and in anthrax in cattle.
By DR.KHALED fujairah municipality2
 
General Pathological Conditions
Judgment:The animals, animal carcasses, offal and other detached portions of animals affectedwith septicemia are
condemned 
. In borderline cases bacteriological examination should be donewherever possible.
Toxemia
The identification of toxemiapresents some difficulties on routine ante mortem and postmortemexamination. The gross lesions differ depending on the specific organisms and toxins involvedalso the clinical signs of toxemia simulate a variety of other pathologic conditions.Toxemia isdefined as the presence and rapid proliferation of exotoxin and endtoxin derived frommicroorganisms or produced by body cells in the blood-stream. Clinical signs and postmortemfindings are similar to those of septicemia.Ante mortem findings:
1.
Normal or subnormal temperature. Fever may be present if toxemia is due tomicroorganisms.2.Confusion and convulsions3.Abnormal changes in locomotion;4.Moribund animal or evidence of pain (noted by grinding its teeth).5.Animal is not able to rise or rises with great difficulty6.Dehydration may also be presentPostmortem findings:
1.
Hemorrhage in organs
2.
Normal or enlarged and edematous lymph nodes (not hyper plastic as in septicemia)3.Areas of tissue necrosis4.Emphysema in cattle5.Rarely degenerative changes of parenchymatous organs (heart, liver and kidneys).Toxemia is frequently associated with:6.Gangrenous mastitis7.Metritis8.Aspiration pneumonia9.Old wounds and injuries10.Diffuse peritonitis due to perforation of the reticulum or uterus.All these signs may not be seen in every animal affected with toxemia.Judgment:If there is evidence of septicemia or toxemia the carcass and the viscera should be
condemned 
and the implements used during inspection and the hands and arms of the inspector should be washed and disinfected. The primary lesions causing septicemia or toxemia includingmerits, mastitis, pericarditis, enteritis and others, should be observed and recorded as causes of condemnation. Comatose or moribund animals should be condemned on ante mortemexamination.
Pigmentation
Pigments areclassified as exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous pigments are synthesizedoutside of the body and endogenous within the body itself.
By DR.KHALED fujairah municipality3

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