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Millman_Halkias

Millman_Halkias

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1
ENERGY BANDS
IN
SOLIDS
In
this
chapter
we
begin with a review of the basic atomic properties of 
matter
leading to discrete electronic energy levels
in
atoms. We find
that
these energy levels are spread
into
energy
bands
in a crystal.This
bandstructure
allows us to distinguish between
an
insulator, asemiconductor,
and
a metal.
1-1
CHARGED
PARTICLES
The
charge,
or
quantity,
of negative electricity
and
the mass o
the
electron
have
been found to be
1.60
X
10-
19
C (coulomb)
and
9.11
X
10-
31
kg, respectively.
The
values of 
many
important
physical
constants
are given in Appendix
A,
and
a list of conversion factors
and
prefixes is given
in
Appendix B. Some idea of 
the
number
of electrons
per
second
that
represents
current
of 
the
usual order of magnitude isreadily possible. F'or example, since
the
charge
per
electron is1.60 X
10-
19
C,
the number
of electrons
per
coulomb is
the
reciprocalof this
nutnber,
or
approximately, 6 X 10
18
Further,
since a
current
of 1 A (ampere) is
the
flow of 
1
Cis,
then
a
current
of only 1 pA
(1
pico-ampere,
or
10-
12
A) represents the motion of approximately
6
millionelectrons
per
second.
Yet
a
current
of 
1
pAis so small
that
considerabledifficulty is experienced in
attempting
to measure it.
The
charge of a positive ion is
an
integral multiple of 
the
chargeof the electron, although
it
is
of opposite sign.
For the
case of singlyionized particles, the charge
is
equal to
that
of the electron.
For
the
case of doubly ionized particles, the ionic charge is twice
that
of 
the
electron.
The
mass of an
atom
is expressed as a
number
that
is based on
the
choice of 
the
atomic weight of oxygen equal
to
16.
The
mass of ahypothetical
atom
of atomic weight
unity
is,
by
this definition, one-sixteenth
that
of the mass of monatomic oxygen
and
has been calcu-
lated to
be 1.66 X
10-
27
kg. Hence,
to
calculate the
mass
in
kilograms
1
 
2
INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS 
Sec.
J-2
of 
any
atom,
it 
is
necessary only
to
multiply
the atomic weigh
of 
the atom by
1.66 X
10-
27
kg.
A
table
of 
atomic
weights is given in
Table
I-Ion
p. 12.
The
radius
of 
the
electron
has
been
estimated
as
10-
15
fi,
and
that
of 
an
atom
as
10-
10
m.
These
are so small
that
all charges
are
considered
as
mass
points
in
the
following sections.
In
a
semiconductor crystal
such as silicon,
two
electrons are
shared
by
each
pair
of ionic neighbors. Such a configuration is called a
covalent bond.
Under
certain
circumstances
an
electron
may
be missing from
this
structure
, leavinga
"hole" inthe
bond.
These
vacancies in
the
covalentbonds
may
move fromion
to
ion
in the crystaland
constitute
a
current
equivalent
to
that
resulting
from
the
motion
of free positive charges.
The
magnitude
of 
the
chargeassociated with
the
hole is
that
of a free electron.
This very
brief 
introduction
to
the
concept of a hole as
an
effective charge carrier is
elaborated
upon in
Chap.
2.
1-2
FIELD
INTENSITY, POTENTIAL, ENERGY
By
definition,
the force
f
(newtons) on a
unit 
positive charge
in
an
electric field 
is
the electric field 
intensity
8
at that point.
N
ewton's
second
lawdetermines
the
motion
of a
particle
of charge
q
(coulombs), mass
(kilograms),
movingwith
a velocity v
(meters
per
second)
in
a field
8
(volts
per
meter).dv
f
=
qt
=
m
dt 
(1-1)
The
mks
(meter-kilogram-second) rationalized
system
of 
units
is
found
to
be
mostconvenient
for
subsequent
studies. Unless otherwise
stated, this system
of 
units
is
employed
throughout
this
book.
Potential
By
definition,
the potential V (volts)
of 
point B
with
respect 
to
 point A
1-8
the work done
against
the field 
in
taking
a
unit
positive charge from
 A
to
B.
This
definition is
valid
for a three-dimensional field.
For
a onedimensional
problemwith
A
at
o
and
at
an
arbitrary
distance
x,
it
follows
thatt
==
-
(x
e
dx (1-2)
}xo
where
B
now
represents
the
X
component
of 
the
field.
Differentiating
Eq.
(1-2) gives
dV 
B
= -
dx (1-3)
The
minus sign shows
that
the
electric field is
directed
from
the
region of 
higher
potential
to
the
region of lower
potential.
In
three
dimensions,
the
electric field equals
the
negative
gradient
of 
the
potential.
t
The
symbol
==
is
used to
designate
"equal
to
by
definition."
 
Sec.
2
ENERGY 
BANDS
IN 
SOLIDS 
/ 3
By
definition,
the
potential energy U (joules) equals the potential multiplied by
the
charge q under consideration,
or
=
q
(1-4)
If
an
electron is being considered,
q
is
replaced
by
-q
(where
q
is
the
magnitude
of 
the
electronic charge)
and
has the
same
shape
as
but
is inverted.
~
The
law of conservation of energy
states
that
the
total
energy
W,
whichequals
the
sumof 
the potential
energy
and the
kineticenergy
jmv
2,
remains,-constant. Thus,
at
anypoint
in space,
=
+
jmv
2
=
constant
(1-5)
As
an
illustration of this law, consider two parallel electrodes
(A
and
of Fig.
l-la)
separated
a
distance
d,
with
B
at
a negative
potential
with
respectto
A.
An electron leaves
the
surface of 
A
with a velocity
o
in the direction
toward
B.
How muchspeed
v
will
it
have if 
it
reaches
B?
From
the
definition,
Eq
.(1-2),
it
is clear
that
only differences o
potential
have
meaning,
and
hence let us
arbitrarily
ground
A,
that
is, consider
it
to be
at
zero potential.
Thenthepotential
at
is
= -
,
and the
potential
energy is
=
-q
=
q
• 
Equating
the
total
energy
at
A
to
that
at
B
gives
(1-6)
Potential,
Distance,
%
-Y,,-----
v
A
o
(b)
Energy
qy"
w
Kinetic
energy.
W -
o
(c)
Fig.
1-1
(0)
An
electron
leaves electrode
A
with
an
initial
speed
v.
and
moves
in
a
retarding
field
toward
plate
B
(b)
the
potential;
(c) the
potentiol-energy
barrier
between electrodes.