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Infection

Infection

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Published by Shai Mocti

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Published by: Shai Mocti on Jul 23, 2010
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05/18/2012

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Infection
is the detrimental colonization of a hostorganism by a foreignspecies. In an infection, the infecting organism seeks to utilize thehost'sresources to multiply, usually at the expense of the host. The infecting organism, or  pathogen,interferes with the normal functioning of the host and can lead tochronic wounds,gangrene,loss of an infected limb, and evendeath.The host's response to infection isinflammation. Colloquially, a pathogen is usually considereda microscopic organismthough the definition is broader, includingparasites, fungi,viruses,prions, bacteria, andviroids. A symbiosis between parasite and host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, ischaracterised asparasitism. The branch of medicinethat focuses on infections and pathogens is
. "When infection attacks the body,
anti-infective
drugs can help turn thetide of battle. Four types of 
anti-infective
drugs exist: antibacterial, antiviral, antitubercular, andantifungal.
Asepsis
is the state of being free from disease-causing contaminants (suchas bacteria, viruses, fungi,and parasites). The term
asepsis
also often refers to those practicesused to promote or induce asepsis in an operative field insurgeryor  medicine to preventinfection.Ideally, a field is "sterile" — free of all biological contaminants, not just those that can cause disease, putrefaction, or fermentation — but that is a situation that is difficult toattain. However, elimination of infection is the goal of asepsis, not sterility.
Medical asepsis
is a clean technique used to reduce and
 prevent the spread of microorganisms (Lee, 2004). Surgical asepsis is a sterile techniquethat requires nurses to use different precautions than they do for medical asepsis. Itincludes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens andspores, from an object or area. Surgical asepsis procedures are followed when performingan invasive procedure into a body cavity normally free of microorganisms. Medicalaspesis means clean; surgical asepsis means sterile.
Sepsis
is a serious medicalcondition that is characterized by a whole-bodyinflammatorystate (called a systemic inflammatory response syndromeor SIRS) and the presence of a known or  suspected infection.
 The body may develop this inflammatory response by theimmunesystemtomicrobes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues.
surgical asepsis
refers to destruction of organisms before they enter the body. It is used in caring for openwounds and in surgical procedures.
Septicemia:
Systemic (bodywide) illness with toxicity due to invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria coming from a local seat of infection. The symptoms of chills, fever and exhaustion are caused by the bacteria and substances they produce. Thedisorder is treated with massive doses of antibiotics. Also known as blood poisoning.
Carrier
 
a person or thing that carries, as one who delivers mail or newspapers, or a train, bus,airplane, etc.
a.a person or company in the business of transporting goods orpassengersb.a company in the business of providing telephone servicea messenger or porter
 
a container, support, or course in or on which something is carried or conducted,as a mechanical part or device or a water conduit
eservoir
a place where something is kept in store: as
a
 
:
an artificial lake where water is collectedand kept in quantity for use
Contact
 
a.
A coming together or touching, as of objects or surfaces.
b.
The state or condition of touching or of immediate proximity:
Resident Flora
Healthy people live in harmony with most microorganisms that establish themselves on (colonize)the body. The microorganisms that usually occupy a particular body site are called the residentflora. Microorganisms that colonize people for hours to weeks but do not establish themselvespermanently are called transient flora.
Transient flora
 Microorganisms that colonize the host for hours to weeks but do not establish themselvespermanently are called transient flora
Sterilization
(or 
sterilisation
, seespelling differences) refers to any process that effectively killsor eliminates transmissible agents (such asfungi,bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) from a surface, equipment, article of food or medication, or biological culture medium.
Sterilizationdoes not, however, remove prions.
Disinfectants
are substances that are applied to non-living objects todestroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Disinfection does not necessarily kill allmicroorganisms, especially not resistantbacterial spores; it is less effective than
,which is an extreme physical and / or chemical process that kills all types of life.
Antiseptic
is a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. Forpractical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application toskin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agentswhich are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics.
Bacteriostatic
antibiotics inhibit growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them; killing isdone by bactericidalagents. Bacteriostatic agents must work with the immune system to remove the microorganisms from the body.
Bactericidal
Refers to a substance (or a condition) capable of killing bacteria.
communicable
 
Dz
Transmittable between persons or species; contagious:
communicable diseases
Infectious disease
is a clinically evidentillnessresulting from the presence of  pathogenic microbialagents, includingpathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular  parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. Thesepathogensare able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called
communicable
 
diseases
or 
transmissible diseases
due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).
Pathogen
:
An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectiousorganisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly,pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical.
Virulence
: The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. The virulence of a microorganism (such as abacterium or virus) is a measure of the severity of the disease it is capable of causing.
 
Pathogenicity
is the ability of apathogen to produce an infectious disease in an organism.It is often used interchangeably with the term "virulence", although some authors prefer to reserve thelatter term for descriptions of the relative degree of damage done by apathogen. Virulenceis the ability of an organism to invade the bloodstream.
Specificity
measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified (e.g. thepercentage of healthy people who are identified as not having the condition
Nosocomial infections
areinfectionsthat are a result of treatment in ahospital or a healthcare service unit. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge.
Isolation
refers to the precautions that are taken in the hospital to prevent the spread of aninfectious agent from an infected or colonized patient to susceptible persons.
Etiology:
The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder. The word "etiology" is mainly used inmedicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produceor predispose toward a certain disease or disorder.
SAFER AND EASIER ASEPTIC FILLING
Aseptic Technologies develops, patents, manufactures and markets equipment thatguarantee optimal sterility assurance level and complies with last regulatoryrequirements, while simplifying the validation and operation processes in the safestway.
CHAIN OF INFECTION

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