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Published by zehra001

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Published by: zehra001 on Jul 23, 2010
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Submitted to,
Ms. Saba Javaid
 Submitted by,
Zehra AliEL-020
olography is three-dimensional laser photography. The hologram is a true, three-dimensional record of the original object. It contains depth and parallax, which is theability to see around the object to objects placed behind.The word, hologram is composed of the Greek terms, "
" for "
whole view
"; andgram, meaning "
". A hologram is a three-dimensional record of the positiveinterference of laser light waves. A technical term for holography is
In holography, we record the positive interference of matching wavefronts of laser light.This three-dimensional record is formed as a diffraction pattern; a series of very finelines, or concentric circles. This diffraction grating bends the viewing light back onto thepath of the original recording wave fronts of laser light. The three-dimensional versionof the object - the hologram - is reconstructed as light.
How is a hologram created?
The process of creating a hologram is known as holography. In other words,holography is a form of photography-an advanced form-that allows an image to berecorded in three dimensions.
olographic process creates an image made up of twosuperimposed 2-dimensional images of the same object as seen from different referencepoints. Lasers are used in holography as it requires the use of light of a single exactwavelength. There are two laser beams and a photographic plate used to take an imageof any object. In the process, the laser beams go through beam spreaders and like aflashlight the spreaders spread the laser light out . One beam illuminates the object fromthe side called the side beam while the other beam travels through the photographicplate. It hits the object head-on which is somewhat similar to the way in which aconventional camera takes a 2-D image. The second beam is known as reference beamand the reflecting light from this beam leaves an image on the photographic plate and atthe same time the side beam also creates an image by its light.
The result is thus a photographic plate creating two images simultaneously. The imagethus formed is a hologram. The hologram is made up of the interference patternbetween the two original images and hence it is a three-dimensional image.
Characteristics of a Hologram
olograms have unique characteristics. These are discussed below:
The light from a reconstructed image from a hologram reaching to the observer'seye is the same as that would come from the original object. One can see in theholographic image the depth, parallax and different perspectives available in theactual object scene. As a matter of
The hologram of a diffuse object can be reconstructed by a small portion of thehologram. If a hologram breaks into pieces, each piece can reproduce the entireimage.
owever, as the hologram size reduces, a loss of image perspective,resolution and brightness result in the constructed image.
A contact print of a hologram will reconstruct a positive image indistinguishablefrom the image produced by the original.
Two images, usually a real (pseudoscopic) and a virtual (orthoscopic) can bereconstructed from a hologram.
A cylindrical hologram provides a 360 deg view of the object.
ore than one independent scenes can be stored in the same photographic platewhich can be viewed one at a time, without any cross-talk.
There are two basic types of holograms:
Transmission holograms
Transmission holograms are clear film windows whichtransmit the viewing light. Transmission holograms are usually recorded on film, whichwe laminate to Plexiglas. The resulting hologram is a clear window onto a holographicworld which contains maximum depth, projection and parallax.
owever, theholographic imagery is only on a horizontal plane. Viewed vertically, or up and down,the holograms travel through a colorful rainbow smear, or spectral shift in color.
ence,transmission holograms are often called "Rainbow
Reflection holograms:
Reflection holograms are high contrast with darkbackgrounds which reflect the viewing light Reflection holograms contain full parallax,with up to a foot of depth and projection on both horizontal and vertical planes.Reflection holograms· sharp, high-contrasting imagery usually play back in a singlecolor. Through photochemical techniques and double exposures, incredible colors canbe obtained. Reflection holograms use front lighting.

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