Nepalese Princess Bhrikuti and Jokhang Temple of Lhasa
Min Bahadur shakya
attracting crowds of prostrating Tibetan pilgrims and curious foreign tourists every year. It hosts the annual Great Prayer Festival, as well as all ceremonies of initiation for the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lamas.
It was founded in the seventh century C.E. by King Srong btsan sgam-po in order to house the
image of Aksobhya Buddha offered to him by his Nepalese consort Bhrikuti Devi.It was
constructed solely of mud, stone and timber.At present the main section of the temple is three
storeys high. It occupies an area of 12,850 square yards and is situated in the heart of the city.
The Jokhang was originally designed by Nepalese craftsmen on behalf of Princess Bhrikuti Devi.
It was built on the site of a Milky lake that had previously been filled in with earth and stones by
a sacred goat.Thesacred goat is still an object of veneration of the Tibetan people.A golden
representation of the sacred goat is still housed inside the Jokhang Temple today.It is one the
most popular tourist attraction in Lhasa. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site and a
spiritual centre of Lhasa.
The Aksobhya Buddha, brought by Princess Bhrikuti, has been transferred to the Ramoche
temple ( small Jokhang, as it used to be called by Tibetans and local Nepalese people, who were
traders and have had shops in the Bar-kor area for generations). It is said that Princess Kongjo
moved Jovo Shakyamuni from the Ramoche Temple to the Jokhang temple. It is unclear exactly
why the changeover of the two images took place. It is said that, after the death of King Srong
btsan sgam po, it was transferred to 'Phrul Nang temple in Lhasa, from where it was stolen and
buried in the sand. It was rediscovered during the period of Trisong Deu tsan through her
paranormal abilities of divination, but it was subsequently moved to sKyid-grong in Mang yul on
the borders of Nepal by the order of the malevolent Ma Zhang, the Bon minister.After peace was
restored under the auspices of the Great Guru Padma sambhava, the statue was restored to
'Phrulnang temple. Under the reign of perverse Langdarma, the statue underwent a second burial,
but was once again returned to 'Phrulnang temple during the period of restoration which occurred
cheifly in the eleventh century.
Concerning the image of Aksobhya Buddha brought by Princess Bhrikuti
Devi, the abbot of Ramoche temple told me, during my field visit to Lhasa
( December 16-22, 1990), that it was crumbled into two halves during the
cultural revolution and was thrown elsewhere. The upper half has been
recently returned to Ramoche temple ( 1985-1986) from Beijing and
installed in the main altar, together with the lower half which was newly-
How 'Phrul Nang was built in seventh century Lhasa is interesting to note in
the following account of rGyal rabs gsal ba'I Melong. Although the
account is also described in Mani Kabum, we prefer the version of rGyal
Previously we came to know that Princess Bhrikuti was overjoyed because the king had
promised to help her in building temples.When she was instructed to build the temple in the
Milky lake, she was at first disappointed.But through the miraculous power of the king, she saw
an auspicious omen.When she looked at the Milky lake, she saw many different colourful lights
forming a nine-storeyed stupa-like temple.After that she couragiously determined to build te
temple on the lake.The following day the king, the queen, the ministers and public came over
again with the sandalwood image of the Buddha in a very large cermonial procession.After that
they made four earthen mountains on the four sides of the lake and performed a rite in front of
the lake.The Nepalese queen was praying to the invaluable malachite bowl, and it supplied
plenty of food and drinks.After that, they started to fill up the lake, and gradually they were able
to make four pieces of land in that land.
They piled four huge stones on each of the four sides of the lake, and the king prayed to the
image of the nine storeyed stupa by walking on the stones.they cut sixteen huge juniper trees,
placed the ends into the four huge stones and the heads against the stupa, which had appeared
after the prayer of the king Srong btsan sgam po. Upon that they piled up many leaves from the
trees.the wood in the lake would never rot, because it had been blessed by the demigods. It had
been touched by mystic liquids which were received by the miraculous priest Akaramatishila
who had been sent to the nether world by King Srong btsan sgampo.then they laid thick slabs and
bricks on them and tied them with melted bronze.Thereafter they made the ground even.the
whole lake was covered completely in the year Earth Male Dog .
That was when King Srong btsan sgampo was twenty three years old.After that the temple
construction was started in the year of pof the earth Female Pig. All the people were overjoyed
when they could see the foundation walls, but again those were dismantled by the gods and evil
spirits, and the Nepalese queen was sad.She then again approached the king and reported the
incident and said: " I can never complete the construction of the temple in my life time with
these frequent obstacles." The king consoled her by saying: " Don't worry, I have a tutelary deity
whom I can consult". After he prayed to to his tutelary deity Avalokiteshvara, there occurred a
sound from the space which was an invisible body saying," All the obstacles can be stopped if
you make one statue of the eleven –faced Avalokiteshvara".
The king asked his Nepalese artist, who had come along with Princess Bhrikuti Devi, whether he
could make the same or not.the Nepalese artist said: yes, I can make it." he asked the king to
provide the snake's heart sandal, Harichandan, Ghoroshi, branches of a bodhi tree, sands of the
Nairanjan river and earth from eight different important solitary places.After receiving all those,
he made a huge hard mud with the milk of a brown cow and a white goat.After the huge mud
was carried to the king, he put it on the headboard, then he prayed to his tutelary deity, asked
which form of Avalokiteshvara should be made. By that time the king thought that the best form
should be the one with eleven faces.At that time the king saw a beam of light which vanished
into the huge mude.Thereby the king thought that the statue would be as wonderful as a beam of
light.theking put the huge mud on the precious throne that night. Thereafter, the mud itself
became a statue of eleven faced Avalokiteshvara at midnight, without needing to be made by his
Nepalese artist.The next morning when the king saw the image he was extremely pleased to see
it and he told his artist, " what a quick and amazing work you did? He told him to set the snake's
heart sandalwood inside the image.
Nepalese artist said," I did not make this statue myself, it is self-produced." Thestatue was
shaking itself as soon as the artist mentioned the incident.for that reason, Amitabha's face was a
little crooked due to the strong movement.Thepiece of snake's heart sandalwood, two pieces of
Bodhi tree and other important materials were put into different parts of the eleven faced self-
grown image of Avalokiteshvara and everyone worshipped it with huge offerings.
Then the king miraculously transformed his body into 108 temple guards and 108 carpenters. No
one knew who they were except the Nepalese queen Bhrikuti devi, who used to bring some food
there.One day she had to send her maid while she was praying her tutelary deity, but the maid
could not recognize the king among those carpenters, so she thought that thee no king amongst
the carpenters.She saw the 108 lions who wre working as carpenters.when she was sneaking
through the slightly opened door, she thought, these must be miraculously animated beings of
She came back to the queen and handed back the food.After that the queen went to see the
king.the maid also followed the queen and she sneaked through the door.After that she laughed
and the king missed his direction with his small axe, hitting the nose of the lion.This caused all
the lion's noses to be cut off.The first floor of the temple was completed in 12 days due to the
miraculous power of King Srong btsan sgampo.
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