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GSM Basic

GSM Basic

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Published by Kalpesh Jesalpura
About 2G GSM Basic terminology understanding from RF engineering point of view.
About 2G GSM Basic terminology understanding from RF engineering point of view.

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Published by: Kalpesh Jesalpura on Jul 26, 2010
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07/26/2010

GSM BASICS
BCH Channels
BCCH( Broadcast Control Channel )
Downlink only
Broadcasts general information of the serving cell called System Information
BCCH is transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH carrier
Read only by idle mobile at least once every 30 secs.
SCH( Synchronization Channel )
Downlink only
Carries information for frame synchronization. Contains TDMA frame
number and BSIC.
FCCH( Frequency Correction Channel )
Downlink only.
Enables MS to synchronize to the frequency.
CCCH Channels
RACH( Random Access Channel )
Uplink only
Used by the MS to access the Network.
AGCH( Access Grant Channel )
Downlink only
Used by the network to assign a signalling channel upon successfull
decoding of access bursts.
PCH( Paging Channel )
Downlink only.
Used by the Network to contact the MS.
DCCH Channels
SDCCH( Standalone Dedicated Control Channel )
Uplink and Downlink
Used for call setup, location update and SMS.
SACCH( Slow Associated Control Channel )
Used on Uplink and Downlink only in dedicated mode.
Uplink SACCH messages - Measurement reports.
Downlink SACCH messages - control info.
FACCH( Fast Associated Control Channel )
Uplink and Downlink.
Associated with TCH only.
Is used to send fast messages like handover messages.
Works by stealing traffic bursts.
WHAT IS INTERFERNCE ?
Interference is the sum of all signal contributions that are either noise or the
unwanted signal.
There are two types of system generated interference
Co-channel interference
Adjacent channel interference
Co-Channel Interference
This type of interference is the due to frequency reuse , i.e. several cells use the
same set of frequency.
These cells are called co-channel cells.

Co-channel interference cannot be combated by increasing the power of the
transmitter. This is because an increase in carrier transmit power increases the
interference to neighboring co-channel cells.

To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cells must be physically separated by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation or reduce the footprint of the cell.

Adjacent-Channel Interference
Interference resulting from signals which are adjacent in frequency to the desired
signal is called adjacent channel interference.
Adjacent channel interference results from imperfect receiver filters which allow
nearby frequencies to leak into the pass band.
By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large
as possible, the adjacent interference may be reduced considerably.
HANDOVER CONDITIONS:-
Handover is done on five conditions

Interference
RXQUAL
RXLEV
Distance or Timing Advance
Power Budget

Interference - If signal level is high and still there is RXQUAL problem, then the RXQUAL
problem is because of interference.
RXQUAL - It is the receive quality. It ranges from 0 to 7 , 0 being the best and 7 the worst
RXLEV - It is the receive level. It varies from -47dBm to -110dBm.
Timing Advance - Ranges from 0 to 63.
Power budget - It is used to save the power of the MS.

Location Area Codes (LAC):-
Purpose
1.Identify location area of Mobile station
2.In incoming call is paged to all BTS’s within LA
Base Transceiver Station Identity Code (BSIC):-
BSIC = NCC (3bits) + BCC (3bits)
Where,NCC Network (PLMN) Colour Code (Unique for Network)3
BCC - Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Colour Code (Can be Planned) Range:0 - 7

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