I pair of cranial nerves, olfactory nerve,
olfactory systemsBrief anatomy.
Olfactory irritation is perceived by sensitive cells (olfactory receptors), mucous membrane of the upper part of the nasal cavity, which form the olfactory fibers passing through openings in the ethmoidbone and goes along to the olfactory bulb. These fibers per se form olfactory nerves. Axons of olfactorysecond neurons, form the olfactory bulb form the olfactory tract, which the excitation reaches the amygdalaof temporal lobe (third neurons) and from them goes to the anterior parahippocampal gyrus (projection andassociation areas of the field of smell).
Investigations of olfactory function
are carried out with aromatic substances (tincture of valerian, camphoroil, etc.) separately in each of the nose entrance.
Reduced sense of smell (hypo-osmia/sphresia) or loss (anosmia)
occurs in 1% of the population aged until60 years and more than 50% of people aged over 60 years. Patients are often unaware of the loss of smell,and complained of breach of taste, in which the perception of odors plays large role. In 2/3 cases of hyposphresia or anosmia are caused rhinogenous diseases, sinusitis, head trauma, degenerative-dystrophicchanges in olfactory neurons in older people. Less likely, bilateral anosmia caused by degenerative diseasesof the nervous system (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), epilepsy, somatic (hypothyroidism, kidney disease,diabetes) and mental illness. Unilateral hypo- and anosmia could be the first and only symptom of tumorsand other pathological processes on the basis of the frontal lobe (shown in detecting computer or MRI of the head). Transiet distortion of smell is possible during pregnancy, poisoning by chemicals andschizophrenia. Olfactory hallucinations (feeling of absence of odor) may occur in pathological processes(most tumors) in of the temporal lobe, they may be a manifestation of an epileptic seizure.
II pair of cranial nerves, optic nerve,
and visual systemBrief anatomical data.
The visual impulses are perceived by retina as an ordered cluster of specialized cells.Retina has three layers of neurons: the first - rods and cones, the second - the bipolar cells, the third -ganglionic cells. Diagram of the visual system is shown in Fig. 7. 7. In rods and cones, light informationthrough photochemical reactions is converted into pulses that propagate successively to other sections of the neurons. Axons of ganglion cells form optic nerve, which penetrates into the cavity of the skull. At thelevel of the optic chiasma or chiasmata opticus
fibers from the inner (nasal) part of the retina pass to theopposite side, the fibers from the outer (temporal) half of the retina remain on their side. As a consequence,in the optic tract
forms after the intersection, in which is located fibers from the temporalpart of the retina of his eye and nasal part of retina of the other eye. - Therefore, right optic tract conductimpulses from the left visual fields, in the left visual tract - from the right visual fields. Optic tract terminatesin the lateral geniculate body, where the excitation is transferred to the next (fourth) neurons. Axons of these neurons pass through the posterior part of hind femur internal capsule and in the temporal andoccipital lobes form radiatio optica, which ends in sulcus calcarinus of occipital lobe (first projection of visualfield). In other divisions (mid-sections and the outer surface) of the occipital lobe is the analysis andrecognition of visual images (second visual field).
Investigation of view.
Visual acuity was tested with the help of special tables, which have alphabets orsimple shapes.The fields of view can be precisely measured using a special device (perimeter). To estimate the field of view,you can use a simpler technique. The patient is asked to close one eye and hand to fix their view on onepoint, for example on the investigator that is sitting oppositely. The researcher moves the hammer of theperimeter because of the patient's head to the center of his moles from different points of view (right, left,top and bottom) and asks the patient to indicate when he saw the hammer. After examination of one eye,another eye is examined. The normal boundaries of fields of view (in white) are: external - 90 °, internal -