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9.2 - Transport in Angiospermophytes

9.2 - Transport in Angiospermophytes

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes on transport in angiospermophytes
IB Biology notes on transport in angiospermophytes

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Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 26, 2010
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05/20/2014

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9.2
 –
 Transport in Angiospermophytes
9.2.1 - Outline how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching and root hairs
The roots of plants have numerous branches and hairs to increase their surface area. This means that they are in greater contact with the soil. Water and minerals are absorbed from the soil solution through these root hairs. The
monocotyledon
roots are highly fibrous and branching structures. This increases their surface area for water absorption.
Dicotyledon
 plants have a min tap root, with additional root branching off it. This enables them to access deeper water and minerals. They have shallow roots close to the surface, and then the tap root penetrates deeper into the ground. Root hairs are found behind the growing tip of each root, and are an extension of individual epidermal cells. They are used to increase the surface area for water absorption.
 
The cells with hairs have a greater cell wall size for increased nutrients and water absorption.
9.2.2 - List ways in which mineral ions in the soil move to the root
 
Diffusion
This requires a concentration gradient. The minerals are generally in low concentration in the soil. The move through the route called the symplast.
 
Fungal Hyphae
This is a form of mutualism. The fungi provide minerals in a form that the plants can use, such as nitrates. They form networks called mycelium to increase surface area within the root to concentrate the minerals. In return, fungi receive sugar from the plants.
 
Mass Flow of Water
Ions are carried through the apoplast, through spaces in the cellulose wall. This way, the water actually does not go near the living content of the cells. There is a hydrostatic pressure gradient instead of an osmotic gradient, and negative pressure potential.
 
9.2.3 - Explain the process of mineral ion absorption from the soil into the roots by active transport
This process requires metabolic energy for transport. The process occurs
against a concentration gradient
. The ions move from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. The cells tend to hoard essential ions.
 
This is also a
selective process
, in which specific ions can be absorbed based on the needs of the plant It also
uses protein pumps
 which select specific ion to be transported to the other side of the membrane. The process requires ATP. If a certain pump is not present, then substance will not be transported. All these ions are found in the soil solution
9.2.4 - State that terrestrial plants support themselves by means of thickened cellulose, cell turgor and lignified xylem Thickened Cellulose
The cellulose is found on the cells located on the outer sections of the stem. These may also be called collenchyma cells.
Cell Turgor
Turgidity exerts pressure on the surrounding cells. When water enters by osmosis, this increases the volume of the cells. More pressure, the turgor pressure, is exerted on the cell walls, providing mechanical support for the tissue. When the plant wilts, it is because there is not enough water to create this cell turgor.
Lignified Xylem
The xylem tissue is strengthened by extra cellulose, and hardened further with lignin. This is a chemical substance which increases the strength of the xylem and provides most of the support in woody stems.

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