The cells with hairs have a greater cell wall size for increased nutrients and water absorption.
9.2.2 - List ways in which mineral ions in the soil move to the root
This requires a concentration gradient. The minerals are generally in low concentration in the soil. The move through the route called the symplast.
This is a form of mutualism. The fungi provide minerals in a form that the plants can use, such as nitrates. They form networks called mycelium to increase surface area within the root to concentrate the minerals. In return, fungi receive sugar from the plants.
Mass Flow of Water
Ions are carried through the apoplast, through spaces in the cellulose wall. This way, the water actually does not go near the living content of the cells. There is a hydrostatic pressure gradient instead of an osmotic gradient, and negative pressure potential.
9.2.3 - Explain the process of mineral ion absorption from the soil into the roots by active transport
This process requires metabolic energy for transport. The process occurs
against a concentration gradient
. The ions move from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. The cells tend to hoard essential ions.