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Published by Rap itttt

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Rap itttt on Jun 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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As a result of cold working, the hardness, tensile strength, andelectrical resistance increase, while ductility decreases. There is also alarge increase in the number of dislocations, and certain planes in thecrystal structure are severely distorted. Most of the energy used tocold work the metal is dissipated in heat, and a finite amount of energy is stored in the crystal structure as internal energy associatedwith the lattice defects created by the deformation.Full annealing is the process by which the distorted cold workedlattice structure is changed back to one which is strain free throughthe application of heat. This process is carried out entirely in the solidstate and is usually followed by slow cooling in the furnace from thedesired temperature. The annealing process may be divided into threestages:RecoveryRecrystallizationGrain growth
This is primarily a low temperature process, and the property changesproduced do not cause appreciable change in microstructure or theproperties, such as tensile strength, yield strength, hardness andductility. The principal effect of recovery is the relief of internalstresses due to cold working.When the load which causes plastic deformation is released, all theelastic deformation does not disappear. This is due to the differentorientation of crystals, which will not allow some of them to moveback when the load is released. As the temperature is increased, thereis some spring back of these elastically displaced atoms which relievemost of the internal stresses. Electrical conductivity is also increasedappreciably during the recovery stage.Since the mechanical properties of the metal are essentiallyunchanged, the main purpose of heating in the recovery range is stressrelieving cold worked alloys to prevent stress corrosion cracking or tominimize the distortion produced by residual stresses. Commercially,
this low temperature treatment in the recovery range is known asstress relief annealing or process annealing.
As the temperature of the recovery range is reached, minute newcrystals appear in the microstructure. These new crystals have thesame composition and lattice structure as the original undeformedgrains and are not elongated but are uniform in dimensions. The newcrystals generally appear at the most drastically deformed portions of the grain, usually the grain boundaries and slip planes. The cluster of atoms from which the new grains are formed is called a nucleus.Recrystallization takes place by a combination of nucleation of strainfree grains and the growth of these nuclei to absorb the entire coldworked material.The term recrystallization temperature does not refer to a definitetemperature below which recrystallization will not occur, but refers tothe approximate temperature at which a highly cold worked materialcompletely recrystallizes in one hour. The recrystallizationtemperatures of several metals and alloys are listed in Table 1.MaterialRecrystallizationTemperature (
F)Copper ( 99.99 %)250Copper ( 5 % Zinc)600Aluminum (99.99 %)175Aluminum alloys600Low carbon steel1000Zinc50Tin25Lead25Table 1. Recrystallization temperatures for various metals and alloys.Pure metals have low recrystallization temperatures as compared withalloys. Zinc, tin and lead have recrystallization temperatures belowroom temperature. This means that these metals cannot be cold
worked at room temperature since they crystallize spontaneously,reforming a strain free structure.The greater the prior deformation, the lower the temperature for thestart of recrystallization.Increasing the annealing time decreases the recrystallizationtemperature for the start of recrystallization.During recrystallization stage, there is a significant drop in tensilestrength, hardness and a large increase in the ductility of the material(See Figure 1). 
Grain Growth:
In this stage the tensilestrength and hardness continue to decrease butat a much less rate than the recrystallization stage. The major changeobserved during this stage is the growth of the grain boundaries andreaching the original grain size (See Figure 1).

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