251/ 553/ 552MG103 Principles of Management
Legal constraints –
a manager has to exercise his
within the bounds of variouslaws passed by the government. For example, a manager cannot order the workers not to form or join a trade union.iv.
Social constraints –
social sectors impose restrictions on the exercise of
by amanager. For instance, the task assigned to employees must conform to the group’s fundamentalsocial beliefs, creeds, codes and habits.v.
Organisational limitations –
a manager’s authority is restricted by the objectives and policies of the organisation. He cannot go against the policies and rules of the organisation aslaid down in Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Partnership Agreement,Policy Manual, etc.vi.
Economic constraints –
market forces and other economic conditions restrict managerial
. A sales manager cannot ask his sales persons to sell products at a higher price inhighly competitive market.vii.
Limited span –
a manager’s authority is limited because there is a limit on the number of subordinates which he can effectively supervise. A manager cannot take decision aboutunlimited number of subordinates. Similarly, a manager can exercise only that much
which is specifically delegated to him.
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:
Delegation is the essence of good organization. It is an important process to manage the affairsof an enterprise satisfactorily. Delegation of authority means conferring authority to another toaccomplish a particular assignment. That means a manager can get things done through others bysharing authority with them. Delegation stands for calling others to render help in accomplishing a job.
The act of assigning authority and responsibility for completion of specific activities to asubordinate, that is, how to distribute formal authority throughout the organisational structure is a keyorganising decision. Delegation is the assignment to another person of formal authority (legitimate power) and accountability for carrying out specific activities. The delegation of authority by managersto employees is necessary for the efficient functioning of any organisation, because no manager can personally accomplish or completely supervise all of what happens at an organisation.
The Process of Delegation:
The process of delegation involves the following steps.1.
Determination of results expected –
first of all, a manager has to define the results hewants to obtain from his subordinates for the achievement of the organisational objectives.2.
Assignment of duties –
the manager the assigns specific duties or tasks to eachsubordinate. He must clearly define the function of each subordinate and while assigningduties and responsibilities, he must ensure that the subordinates understand and accept their
Prepared by A. Jayakumar.BBM, M.B.A, M.Com