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5 CNG Advantage
6 CNG Locomotives
7 CNG compared to LNG
achieve higher thermal efficiencies than stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines and very low NOx emissions due to lower combustion temperature. Electronically controlled stoichiometric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output, especially when combined with exhaust gas recirculation, turbocharging and intercooling, and three-way catalytic converters, but suffer in terms of heat rejection and fuel consumption. A suitably designed natural gas engine may have a higher output compared with a petrol engine because the octane number of natural gas is higher than that of petrol as this would allow for an engine design with a higher compression ratio.
CNG may be refueled from low-pressure (" slow-fill ") or high-pressure ("fast-fill") systems . The difference lies in the
cost of the station vs. the refueling time. There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line
during the night , but this is forbidden in some countries. Fueling a vehicle from a home natural gas fuel line is
Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Therefore, the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle, thanks to a more rational disposition of components, leaving the trunk free [eg. Fiat Multipla, New Fiat Panda
Scientists are developing methods of storing methane in a new form known as ANG (Absorbed Natural Gas) at 35 bar (500 psi , the pressure of gas in natural gas pipelines) in various sponge like materials, such as activated carbon and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The fuel is stored at similar or greater energy density than CNG. The benefits
burning one fuel at a time. Their engine is a standard gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE). This means that they can indifferently run on either gasoline from a gasoline tank or CNG from a separate cylinder in the trunk. The driver can select what fuel to burn by simply flipping a switch on the dashboard.
Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs is eliminated. CNG-powered vehicles have lower maintenance costs when compared with other fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed, which prevents any spill or evaporation losses. Increased life of oils is another advantage. Other practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil . CNG mixes easily and evenly in air being a gaseous fuel. CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 °C) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of inflammability.[12 ]
MJ) by the California Air Resources Board (ARB ), approximately 28% lower than the average gasoline fuel in that market (95. 86 gCO2e/MJ). CNG produced from landfill biogas was found by ARB to have the lowest greenhouse gas emissions of any fuel analyzed, with a value of 11.26 gCO2 e/MJ (over 88% lower than conventional gasoline) in the low-carbon fuel standard that went into effect on January 12, 2010.
CNG Locomotives are operated by several railroads. The Napa Valley Wine Train successfully retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002.[14 ] This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, and is now the Napa Valley Wine Train 's primary locomotive[15 ] Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG Locomotive on a freight line since 2005. CNG locomotives are usually diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the motors of the train. Some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power , which, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines .
CNG is often confused with liquefied natural gas (LNG ). While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is gas that is stored at high
pressure, while LNG is in uncompressed liquid form. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive
cooling process and cryogenic tanks. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of gasoline or petrol and the use of very high pressures (3000
are retrofitted in specialized shops, which involve installing the gas cylinder in the trunk and the CNG injection
system and electronics. Argentina and Brazil are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles, with a
combined total fleet of more than 3 million vehicles by 2008.[17 ] Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price
Argentina has some 1.69 million NGV 's as of 2008, with 1767 refuelling stations across the nation, or 15% of all vehicles. By July 2008 there were 1.56 million retrofitted vehicles in Brazil, or about 5% of the total light vehicle fleet, with 1585 refueling stations , and most of the fleet is taxis operating in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São
converting their petrol-driven vehicles to also run on CNG – motivated no doubt by rising petrol prices . The initial cost of converting a regular vehicle to dual fuel at the German conversion workshop of C. Melchers , for example, is around S $3,800 (US$2,500); with the promise of real cost-savings that dual -fuel vehicles bring over the long term .
Jurong Island, and jointly with Singapore Petroleum Company, the filling station at Jalan Buroh. Both these stations are in the western part of the country. Another station on the mainland is in Mandai Link to the north and is operated by SMART Energy. SMART also own a second station on Serangoon North Ave 5 which was set up end of March 2009; The fifth and largest station in the world was opened by the UNION Group in September 2009. This station is recognized by the Guniness World Records as being the laregst in the world with 46 refuelling hoses. This station is located in Toh Tuck . The Union Group , which operates 1000 CNG Toyota Wish taxis plan to introduce another
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