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Compressed Natural Gas - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Compressed Natural Gas - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Page 1
Compressed natural gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2/26/2010 11:33:53 PM
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bc/Wiki.png
Compressed natural gas
Blue diamond symbol used on
CNG-powered vehicles in North
America
A CNG powered high-floor Neoplan
AN440A, operated by ABQ RIDE in
Albuquerque, New Mexico .
From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia
Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) is a
fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), diesel, or propane fuel. Although its
combustion does produce greenhouse gases , it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much
safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air , and disperses quickly when released).
CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4 ]), to less than 1 % of its volume
at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers, at a normal pressure of
200–248 bar
(2900–3600 psi ), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.
CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles
(gasoline/CNG). Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in Europe and South America due to rising gasoline prices .
In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in tuk-tuks and pickup
trucks, transit and school buses , and trains.
CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of
LNG's (because it is not liquefied), and 25% of diesel's .[1 ]
Contents

1 Technology
2 Drawbacks
3 Developments

4 CNG cars

5 CNG Advantage
6 CNG Locomotives
7 CNG compared to LNG

8 Worldwide
8.1 South America
8.2 South-East Asia
8.3 South Asia
8.4 Middle East and Africa
8.5 Europe
8.6 North America
8.6.1 Canada
8.6.2 United States of America
8.7 Oceania
9 See also
10 References
Technology
CNG can be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines . Lean-burn Otto-cycle engines can

achieve higher thermal efficiencies than stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines and very low NOx emissions due to lower combustion temperature. Electronically controlled stoichiometric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output, especially when combined with exhaust gas recirculation, turbocharging and intercooling, and three-way catalytic converters, but suffer in terms of heat rejection and fuel consumption. A suitably designed natural gas engine may have a higher output compared with a petrol engine because the octane number of natural gas is higher than that of petrol as this would allow for an engine design with a higher compression ratio.

CNG may be refueled from low-pressure (" slow-fill ") or high-pressure ("fast-fill") systems . The difference lies in the
cost of the station vs. the refueling time. There are also some implementations to refuel out of a residential gas line
during the night , but this is forbidden in some countries. Fueling a vehicle from a home natural gas fuel line is

becoming more popular in the United States , especially in California and New York, and tax credits are available for
installing the necessary appliance.
Page 2
Compressed natural gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2/26/2010 11:33:53 PM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gas
Gas storage in a car.
CNG pumps at a Brazilian gasoline
fueling station
CNG cylinders can be made of steel, aluminum, or plastic. Lightweight composite (fiber-wrapped thin metal "ISO 11439 CNG-3" /
fibre-wrapped plastic " ISO
11439 CNG-4" ) cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation
steel and aluminum cylinders, which leads to lower fuel consumption. The CNG cylinders bundled with safety-valve generally follow the ISO 11439 standard.
[2]
The equipment required for CNG to be delivered to an Otto-cycle engine includes apressure regulator (a device that converts the natural gas from storage
pressure to metering pressure) and agas mixer orgas injectors (fuel metering devices). Earlier
-generation CNG conversion kits featured venturi -type gas
mixers that metered fuel using the Venturi effect. Often assisting the gas mixer was a metering valve actuated by a
stepper motor relying on feedback from an
exhaust gas oxygen sensor. Newer CNG conversion kits feature electronic multi-point gas injection, similar to petrol injection systems found in most of today's
cars.
Drawbacks

Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Therefore, the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle, thanks to a more rational disposition of components, leaving the trunk free [eg. Fiat Multipla, New Fiat Panda

, Volkswagen Touran Ecofuel, Volkswagen Caddy Ecofuel, Chevy Taxi (sold in
countries such as Peru)]. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles.[3 ][4 ][5 ]
Developments

Scientists are developing methods of storing methane in a new form known as ANG (Absorbed Natural Gas) at 35 bar (500 psi , the pressure of gas in natural gas pipelines) in various sponge like materials, such as activated carbon[6] and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).[7] The fuel is stored at similar or greater energy density than CNG. The benefits

are that vehicles can be refuelled from the natural gas network without extra gas compression, the fuel tanks can be
made of lighter
, weaker materials, and the tank designed to be much slimmer.
CNG cars
Main article: Natural gas vehicle
Worldwide, there are more than 7 million NGVs on the roads as of 2008,[8 ] with the largest number of NGVs in
Pakistan, Argentina
, Brazil, India , Italy, China, Thailand
, and Iran,[9 ][10] with South America leading with a global
market share of 48%.[11]
CNG cars available in Europe are bi-fuel vehicles

burning one fuel at a time. Their engine is a standard gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE). This means that they can indifferently run on either gasoline from a gasoline tank or CNG from a separate cylinder in the trunk. The driver can select what fuel to burn by simply flipping a switch on the dashboard.

Several manufacturers (Fiat, Opel(General Motors ), Peugeot, Volkswagen, Toyota, Honda and others) sell bi-fuel cars. In 2006, Fiat introduced the Siena
Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market, equipped with a 1. 4L FIRE engine that runs on E100, E25 (Standard Brazilian Gasoline), Gasoline and CNG.
Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a bi-fuel (gasoline/CNG) vehicle. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting, this involves installing a CNG
cylinder in the trunk, installing the plumbing, installing a CNG injection system and the electronics.
CNG Advantage

Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs is eliminated. CNG-powered vehicles have lower maintenance costs when compared with other fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed, which prevents any spill or evaporation losses. Increased life of oils is another advantage. Other practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil . CNG mixes easily and evenly in air being a gaseous fuel. CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 °C) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of inflammability.[12 ]

CNG produces significantly lesser emissions of pollutants like carbon dioxide (CO2 ), hydrocarbons(UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides
(NOx),
sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM), as compared to petrol . For example, an engine running on petrol for 100kms emits 22,000 grams of CO 2,
while covering the same distance on CNG emits only 16,275 grams of CO 2. The corresponding figures are 78 and 25.8 grams respectively, for nitrogen oxides.
Carbon monoxide emissions are reduced even further . Due to lower carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions
, switching to CNG can help mitigate
greenhouse gas emissions.[12] The ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas
and the fuel it is replacing. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from California
's pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams
Page 3
Compressed natural gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2/26/2010 11:33:53 PM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressed_natural_gas
CNG station in Rosario, Argentina.
A CNG powered Volvo B10BLE bus,
operated by SBS Transit in
Singapore .
of
CO 2-equivalent per megajoule (gCO2e/

MJ) by the California Air Resources Board (ARB ), approximately 28% lower than the average gasoline fuel in that market (95. 86 gCO2e/MJ). CNG produced from landfill biogas was found by ARB to have the lowest greenhouse gas emissions of any fuel analyzed, with a value of 11.26 gCO2 e/MJ (over 88% lower than conventional gasoline) in the low-carbon fuel standard that went into effect on January 12, 2010.[13]

CNG Locomotives

CNG Locomotives are operated by several railroads. The Napa Valley Wine Train successfully retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002.[14 ] This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, and is now the Napa Valley Wine Train 's primary locomotive[15 ] Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG Locomotive on a freight line since 2005[16]. CNG locomotives are usually diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the motors of the train. Some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power , which, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines .

CNG compared to LNG

CNG is often confused with liquefied natural gas (LNG ). While both are stored forms of natural gas, the key difference is that CNG is gas that is stored at high
pressure, while LNG is in uncompressed liquid form. CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive
cooling process and cryogenic tanks. CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of gasoline or petrol and the use of very high pressures (3000

to 4000 psi, or 205 to 275 bar).
Worldwide
South America
CNG vehicles are commonly used in South America, they represent 48% of the world's total fleet,[11 ] where these
vehicles are mainly used as taxicabs in main cities of Argentina and Brazil.[11 ] Normally, standard gasoline vehicles

are retrofitted in specialized shops, which involve installing the gas cylinder in the trunk and the CNG injection
system and electronics. Argentina and Brazil are the two countries with the largest fleets of CNG vehicles,[11] with a
combined total fleet of more than 3 million vehicles by 2008.[17 ] Conversion has been facilitated by a substantial price

differential with liquid fuels, locally-produced conversion equipment and a growing CNG-delivery infrastructure.

Argentina has some 1.69 million NGV 's as of 2008, with 1767 refuelling stations across the nation, or 15% of all vehicles. By July 2008 there were 1.56 million retrofitted vehicles in Brazil, or about 5% of the total light vehicle fleet, with 1585 refueling stations , and most of the fleet is taxis operating in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São

Paulo.[11 ][17]
Bolivia
has increased its fleet from 30,000 in 2004 to 90,163 units in April 2008, Colombia has an NGV fleet of
257,468 vehicles
, and 378 refueling stations as
of June 2008. Peru has 41,411 NGV as of July 2008, but that number is expected to skyrocket as Peru sits on South America's largest gas reserves.[11 ]
A 'Blue-network' of CNG stations is being developed on the major highways of the Southern Cone (including Chile and Bolivia
) to allow for long-haul
transportation fueled by CNG.[citation needed]
South-East Asia
In Singapore CNG is increasingly being used by public transport vehicles like buses and taxis, as well as goods
vehicles. However
, according to Channel NewsAsia on April 18, 2008, more owners of private cars in this country are

converting their petrol-driven vehicles to also run on CNG – motivated no doubt by rising petrol prices . The initial cost of converting a regular vehicle to dual fuel at the German conversion workshop of C. Melchers , for example, is around S $3,800 (US$2,500); with the promise of real cost-savings that dual -fuel vehicles bring over the long term .

Singapore currently has five operating filling stations for natural gas. SembCorp Gas Pte Ltd runs the station on

Jurong Island, and jointly with Singapore Petroleum Company, the filling station at Jalan Buroh. Both these stations are in the western part of the country. Another station on the mainland is in Mandai Link to the north and is operated by SMART Energy. SMART also own a second station on Serangoon North Ave 5 which was set up end of March 2009; The fifth and largest station in the world was opened by the UNION Group in September 2009. This station is recognized by the Guniness World Records as being the laregst in the world with 46 refuelling hoses. This station is located in Toh Tuck . The Union Group , which operates 1000 CNG Toyota Wish taxis plan to introduce another

3
daughter stations and increase the CNG taxi fleet to 8000 units.

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