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Betty Neuman.doc Latest

Betty Neuman.doc Latest

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Published by Yushiro Yakumo

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Published by: Yushiro Yakumo on Jul 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Betty Neuman (System Model)
Was born in 1942 and grew up on a farm in Ohio. Her rural backgroundhelper her develop a compassion for people in need.
She completed her initial nursing education with double honors at peopleshospital school of nursing (now general Hospital), Akron, Ohio in 1947.
She moved to California and worked in a variety of roles that includedhospital nurse, school nurse, industrial nurse, clinical instructor at theUniversity of southern California medical center.
Theoretical Sources
The Neuman Systems model is based in general system theory andreflects the nature of living organism as open system, Neuman synthesisknowledge from several disciplines and incorporates her ownphilosophical beliefs and clinical nursing expertise, particularly in mentalhealth nursing.
Major concept and definitions
The major concept and identified in the model are wholistic approach,open system (including function, input and output, feedback, entropy andstability), environment, created environment, wellness and illness clientsystem (including 5 client variables, basic structure, linens of resistance,normal line of defense), stressors, degree of reaction, prevention asintervention and recon-stitution.
Wholistic approach
The Neuman system model is a dynamic, open, system approach toclients care originally developed a unifying focus
for nursing problemdefinitions and for best understanding the client in interaction with theenvironment.
The model considers all variables simultaneously affecting the
client system:
1.Physiological variables
Refers to the body structure and function.
2.Psychological variables
Refers to mental process in interaction with the environment.
3. Socio Cultural variables
Refers to the effects and influences of social and culturalconditions.
4.Development variables
Refers to age related processes and activities.
5.Spiritual variable
Refers to spiritual beliefs and influences.
Open System
System is open when its elements are continuously exchanginginformation and energy within its complex organization stress and reactionto stress are basic components of an open system.
Function or process
The client as a system exchanges energy, information and matter with theenvironment as it uses available energy resources to more toward stabilityand wholeness.
Input and output
For the clients as a system, input and output are the matter, energy andinformation that are exchanged between the client and the environment.
System output in the form of matter, energy and information serves asfeedback for future input for corrective action to change, enhance or stabilize the system.
Neuman defines Negentropy as “a process of energy conservationutilization that assists system progression toward stability or wellness”
“A process of energy depletion and disorganization that moves the systemtoward illness or possible death”.
“A desires state of balance in which the system copes with stressors tomaintain an optimal level of health and integrity”.
“Internal and external forces surrounding and affecting the client at anytime comprise the environment”.
Created environment
The created environment is developed unconsciously by the client toexpress system wholeness symbolically. Its purpose is to provide a safearena for client system functioning and insulate the client from stressors.
Basic client structure
The client as a system is composed of a central core surrounded byconcentric rings. The inner circle of the diagram
represents the basicsurvival factor or energy resources of the client this core structure.

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