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8.2 - Photosynthesis

8.2 - Photosynthesis

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes on photosynthesis
IB Biology notes on photosynthesis

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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8.2.1 - Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a chloroplast as seen in electron micrographs
double membrane
starch grain
internal membrane
 - location of the light dependent reaction
 - location of the light independent reaction, including the Calvin cycle. Often contain large starch grains and oil droplets, products of photosynthesis
8.2.2 - State that photosynthesis consists of light-dependent and light-independent reactions
Light Dependent Reactions
In these reactions, the energy found in photons of light from the sun is used to produce ATP for the light independent reactions. This energy is trapped by the pigment
 in the thylakoid membranes. It is then used break the bonds in a water molecule, splitting it into O
 and H
 ions, called
. Whilst the oxygen is released as a waste product, the hydrogen is taken by the hydrogen acceptor, NADP
. The light energy is then used to convert ADP and phosphate into ATP, a process called
Light Independent Reactions
Whilst the light dependent reactions use light energy, the light independent reactions use the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH + H
. These take place in the stroma. The carbon from the atmosphere found in CO
 is fixed in the form of sugars. Although these reactions do not directly rely on the presence of light to occur, the products of light dependent reactions must still be available.
8.2.3 - Explain the light-dependent reactions
In the
light dependent reactions
, light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy. This is trapped in the chlorophyll, which are grouped into structures called photosystems. The
 are found on the thylakoid membranes of the grana. There are multiple types of chlorophyll found in each photosystem, each of which absorb a different wavelength of light.
Chlorophyll A
 is in the centre of the photosystem. When light hits the chlorophyll, electrons are excited and lost in
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
ATP is produced in a cyclic process when the
ratio of NADPH + H
 to NADP
 is high
. This occurs when light is not a limiting factor for the reaction. Photosystem 1 does not generate any NADPH + H
, but sends electrons to the proton pump. Photosystem 1 is oxidised by the incoming light, releasing an excited an electron to reduce the membrane proton pump. Protons, in the forms of H
 are pumped into the thylakoid space. This creates a concentration gradient necessary for the later production of ATP. The electrons are the cycled back to photosystem 1 to reduce it.

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