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NASA 140646main ESAS 15

NASA 140646main ESAS 15

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Published by: NASAdocuments on Oct 02, 2007
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06/16/2009

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15. Architecture Advantages
15. Architecture Advantages
The Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team examined a wide variety of archi-tecture element configurations, functionality, subsystems, technologies, and implementationapproaches. Alternatives were systematically and objectively evaluated against a set of Figuresof Merit (FOMs). The results of these many trade studies are summarized in each major sectionof this report and in the recommendations in
Section 13
,
Summary of Recommendations
.
Although many of the key features of the architecture are similar to systems and approachesused in the Apollo Program, the selected ESAS architecture offers a number of advantagesover that of Apollo, including:Double the number of crew to the lunar surface;Four times the number of lunar surface crew-hours for sortie missions;A Crew Module (CM) with three times the volume of the Apollo Command Module;Global lunar surface access with anytime return to the Earth;Enabling a permanent human presence at a lunar outpost;Demonstrating systems and technologies for human Mars missions;Making use of in-situ lunar resources; andProviding significantly higher human safety and mission reliability.In addition to these advantages over the Apollo architecture, the ESAS-selected architectureoffers a number of other advantages and features, including:The Shuttle-derived launch options were found to be more affordable, safe, and reliablethan Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) options;The Shuttle-derived approach provides a relatively smooth transition of existing facilitiesand workforce to ensure lower schedule, cost, and programmatic risks;Minimizing the number of launches through development of a heavy-lift Cargo LaunchVehicle (CaLV) improves mission reliability and safety and provides a launcher for futurehuman Mars missions;Use of a Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB-) based Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV)with a top-mounted Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Launch Abort System (LAS) provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in ascent crew safety over the Space Shuttle;Use of an Apollo-style blunt-body capsule was found to be the safest, most affordable, andfastest approach to CEV development;Use of the same modular CEV CM and Service Module (SM) for multiple mission appli-cations improves affordability;Selection of a land-landing, reusable CEV improves affordability;Use of pressure-fed Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/methane propulsion on the CEV SM and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) ascent stage enables In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)for lunar and Mars applications and improves the safety of the LSAM; andSelection of the “1.5-launch” Earth Orbit Rendezvous–Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (EOR– LOR) lunar mission mode offers the safest and most affordable option for returninghumans to the Moon.

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