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Giai Phuong Trinh Bac 3

Giai Phuong Trinh Bac 3

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Published by nguyenngocdiem1995

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Published by: nguyenngocdiem1995 on Jul 28, 2010
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04/12/2014

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Giaûi Phöông trình baäc 3:[ct]ax^3+bx^2+cx+d=0[/ct] (1)Phöông phaùp;1)duøng aån phuï:a)Ñaët x=x-
ab
3
,ta coù: (1)
==++
ab X  xq p  X 
30
3
(2)vôùi p=
23
2
bac
; q=
223
272792
aaabcb
+
b)Ñaët X=u+v, thay vaøo (2) vaø choïn sao cho:
=+=
qvu pu v
33
3
 
=+=
qvu pvu
33333
2 7
Suy ra u
3
vaø v
3
laø nghieäm cuûa phöông trình: y
2
+qy-
27
3
 p
=0(3)Bieät soá :
2727274
231
=+=
q p
Vôùi
23
274
q p
+=
00
1
: (3) coù 2 nghieäm thöïc:y
1
=
2
1
+
q
; y
2
=
2
1
q
 Ta choïn u
3
=y
1
u=
31
2
+
q
; v
3
=y
2
v=
31
2
q
Do ñoù ta coù 1 nghieäm cuûa (2)laø X
1
=
31
2
+
q
+
31
2
q
 (*)(*) laø coâng thöùc Cardan.Khi giaûi phöông trình baäc 3 : X
3
+pX+q=0,caùc baïn coù theåaùp duïng coâng thöùc Cardan ñeå xaùc ñònh moät nghieämthöïc cuûa phöông trình.Ñaët X-X
1
laøm thöøa soá chung, ta coù : (2)
(X-X
1
)(X
2
+mX+n)=0
 
 Ta suy ra caùc nghieäm cuûa (2).Giaû söû (2) coù 3 nghieäm laø X
1,
X
2
,X
3
(1) coù 3 nghieämlaø:.x
1
=X
1
-
ab
3
; x
2
=X
2
-
ab
3
;x
3
=X
3
-
ab
3
 TOÙM TAÉTGiaûi phöông trình : ax
3
+bx
2
+cx+d=0,a
0Ñaët x=X-
ab
3
(1)
X
3
+pX+q=0 (2)Laäp
=4p
3
+27q
2
*
>0 : (2) coù 1 nghieäm thöïc duy nhaát :X
1
=u+v
nghieäm cuûa (1)*
=0 : (2) coù 1 nghieäm keùp vaø 1 nghieäm ñôn.X
1
=2
3
3
 p
; X
2
=X
3
= -
3
3
 p
 
caùc nghieäm cuûa (1)*
)2(:0
<
coù 3 nghieäm phaân bieät thuoäc
32;32
p p
(
00
<<
p
) Ta ñaët p= - 3t
2
, vôùi t>0.
X
1
,X
2
,X
3
[ ]
2;2
 
(*)Duøng pp löôïng giaùc :töø (*) ta ñaët :X=2tcos, ùi 0
π ϕ 
 Thay vo (2) ta coù (2tcos)
3
+p.2tcos+q=0
333333
23cos)cos3cos4(2cos6cos8
qqq
===
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ 
Choïn goùc
α 
sao cho cos
α 
= -
3
2
q
vôùi
π α 
0
Suy ra cos3
α ϕ 
cos
=
323,23
π α ϕ π α ϕ 
 Z 
+±=+±=
Do
+=+==
3233233:,0
321
π α ϕ π α ϕ α ϕ π ϕ 
t a c o
Suy ra nghieäm cuûa (2):
===
332211
c o s2c o s2c o s2
ϕ ϕ ϕ 
 X  X  X 
Vaäy nghieäm cuûa(1):x=X
i
-
ab
3
, i=1,2,3Aùp duïng :

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