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Giai Phuong Trinh Chua Can

Giai Phuong Trinh Chua Can

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Published by nguyenngocdiem1995

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Published by: nguyenngocdiem1995 on Jul 28, 2010
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07/28/2010

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ChuÈn bÞ thi vµo ®¹i häcGi¶i Ph¬ng Tr×nh chøa c¨n nh thÕ nµo?
 Khi c¸c b¹n gi¶i ph¬ng tr×nh (PT) d¹ng
cxbax
+=+
, chóng ta®Òu biÕt b×nh ph¬ng 2 vÕ ®Ó khö c¨n bËc hai, vËy víi PT
edxcxbax
++=+
2
cã gii ®îc b»ng ph¬ng ph¸p ®ã ®îc n÷akh«ng? Xin tr¶ lêi trõ mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt. VËy th× cã ph-¬ng ph¸p gi¶i chung kh«ng ? §©y lµ c©u hái mµ nhiÒu b¹n ®äccha tr¶ lêi ®îc, VÝ dô khi gi¶i PT sau:
32359
2
++=
x x x
,ta ®Æt
31,1359
+=
y y x
, råi khi gi¶i PT:
20041603212004
2
=+
x x x
, ta ®Æt
21,12160321
=+
 x
.VËy b¹n ®· tù hái xem t¹i sao l¹i cã ®îc phÐp ®Æt nh vËy( §· cãmét chuyªn ®Ò ®îc ®¨ng trªn
To¸n häc vµ tuæi trΠ
nãi vÒ ph-¬ng ph¸p gi¶i). §Æc biÖt víi c¸c b¹n ®· häc vÒ
®¹o hµm
th× ph-¬ng ph¸p sau sÏ gi¶i quyÕtbíc chän ®Æt nhanh h¬nrÊt nhiÒu.Sau ®©y lµ néi dung ph¬ng ph¸p cô thÓ:
D¹ng 1
:
)0(, 1
2
++=+
acx x abax
vµ tháa m·n
     +=+
212
2
ccaad b
(*). XÐthµm sè
cx xa y
++=
2
1
=>
202)('
ac xc xa x  f  
=<=>=+=
, khi ®ã b»ngphÐp ®Æt
2
ac ybax
+=+
, ta sÏ ®a PT d¹ng 1 vÒ hÖ ®èi xøngquen thuéc.
Chó ý: Khi bµi to¸n ®· cho th× ®iÒu kiÖn sÏ tháa m·n. Do vËy tacòng kh«ng ph¶i kiÓm tra ®iÒu kiÖn ®ã.
VÝ dô
: Gi¶i PT sau:
3661126293
2
+=+
x x x
Lµm nh¸p
:
6293)(
2
+=
x x x  f  
=>
61016)('
=<=>=+=
x x x  f  
.
Gi¶i
: §Æt
61366112
+=+
 y x
,
61
 y
<=>
36131366112
2
++=+
 y y x
<=> 12x+61 = 36y
2
+12y +1 <=> 3y
2
+ y = x +5(1)Mµ theo c¸ch ®Æt ta cã:
616293
2
+=+
y x x
<=> 3x
2
+ x = y +5 (2)
 
 Tõ (1) vµ (2) ta cã hÖ:
+=++=+
5353
22
 y x x x y y
=> 3(y
2
– x
2
) + ( y – x) = x – y<=> (x-y)(3y + 3x +2) = 0 <=> y = x hoÆc
323
+=
x y
.* Víi y = x => 3y
2
= 5 =>y = x =
35
,(
61
 y
).* Víi
323
+=
x y
=> 3x
2
+ x =
323
+
 x
+5 <=> 9x
2
+6x - 13 = 0=>
91263
2,1
±=
 x
. Tõ ®©y ta t×m ®îc y vµ kÕt luËn ®îc nghiÖmcña PT ®· cho.
D¹ng 2:
)1,0,0(,
2
cacaedxcxbax
++=+
XÐt f(x) = cx
2
+ dx + e => f’(x) = 2cx + d = 0 =>
c x
2
=
, khi®ã b»ng phÐp ®Æt
cybax
+=+
2
.
VÝ dô1:
Gi¶i PT sau:
32359
2
++=
x x x
Lµm nh¸p: f(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 =>f’(x) = 6x + 2 = 0 =>x = - 1/3.
Gi¶i:
§Æt
31,1359
+=
y y x
=> 9x – 5 = 9y
2
+6y + 1 <=> 9y
2
+ 6y = 9x – 6 <=> 3y
2
+ 2y= 3x 2 (1)MÆt kh¸c ta cã: 3x
2
+ 2x + 3 = 3y +1 <=> 3x
2
+ 2x = 3y – 2(2) Tõ (1) vµ (2) ta cã hÖ
=+=+
2323 2323
22
 y x x x y y
®Õn ®©y xin dµnh cho b¹n®äc tù gi¶i nh vÝ dô trªn.
VÝ dô 2
: Gi¶i PT sau:
20041603212004
2
=+
x x x
(Thi chän HSG B¾c Giang n¨m häc2003 – 2004).
Lµm nh¸p
: XÐt hµm sè f(x) = x
2
– x – 2004 => f’(x) = 2x – 1 = 0<=> x =
21
Do
ca
1
, nªn ta sö dông ph¬ng ph¸p ®Æt:
Gi¶i
: §Æt
21,12160321
=+
 x
=> t
2
– t = 4008x, (1)
 
MÆt kh¸c do tõ PT ta cã: x
2
– x – 2004 = 2004( 2t – 1) => x
2
– x= 4008t,(2) Tõ (1) vµ (2) ta cã hÖ PT sau:
==
 x x x
4 0 04 0 0
22
=> (t
2
– x
2
) – (t – x) = 4008(x – t)<=> (t – x)[ t + x – 1 + 4008] = 0<=> t = x hoÆc t = - x – 4007.* Víi t = x ta cã: x
2
– 4009x = 0 <=> x = 0 vµ x = 4009. Ta cã x= 0 kh«ng tháa m·n.* Víi t = - x – 4007=> x
2
– x = 4008(- x- 4007) <=> x
2
+4007x –4007.4008 = 0 => PT v« nghiÖm.
KL
: PT ®· cho cã nghiÖm duy nhÊt x = 4009.
D¹ng 3:
)1,0,0(,
233
cacamexdxcxbax
=+++=+
XÐt hµm sè f(x) =
mexdxcx
+++
23
=> f’(x) = 3cx
2
+ 2dx + e=> f’’(x) = 6cx + 2d = 0 =>
c x
3
=
, Khi ®ã b»ng phÐp ®Æt: 
c ybax
3
3
+=+
VÝ dô
: Gi¶i PT sau:
 x x x x
492338633
233
+=
Lµm nh¸p
: XÐt hµm sè f(x) =
 x x x
49233
23
+
=> f’(x) = x
2
- 3x +9/4=>f’’(x) = 2x – 3 = 0 <=>
23
=
 x
.
Gi¶i
: §Æt
238633
3
=
y x
=>
827427298633
23
+=
y y y x
<=>
 y y y x
42729293
23
+=
<=> 12x – 18 = 4y
3
– 18y
2
+27y, (1). Tõ PT ®· cho vµ theo c¸ch ®Æt ta cã:
 x x x y
4923323
23
+=
 <=>12y – 18 = 4x
3
– 18x
2
+ 27x, (2).

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