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Sampling Exam chapter 1

Sampling Exam chapter 1

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Published by khaled
Sampling Exam chapter 1
Sampling Exam chapter 1

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Published by: khaled on Jun 20, 2008
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Sampling exam Blood parasite
Information to be sent with samples
1.Name and address of owner / occupier where disease occurred, with telephone and fax numbersand date of dispatch.2.Disease(s) suspected.3.Samples submitted, tests required (transport medium used) and date of sampling.4.Different species on the farm and number, age and sex of each affected animal, identificationnumbers.5.Length of time on the farm; if recent arrival, where from.6.Date of first cases and of subsequent cases or losses, with any appropriate previous submissionreference numbers.7.Description of the spread of infection in the herd or flock.8.Number of animals dead, the number showing clinical signs, and their age, sex and breed9.The clinical signs and their duration including the condition of mouth, eyes and feet, and milk oegg production data,10.Type and standard of husbandry, including the type of feed available, possible contact with poisonor poisonous plants,11.A list and description of the samples examined post-mortem with date of examination and theobserved findings,12.Any medication already applied to the animals, and when given.13.Any vaccination already given, and when given.14.Name and address of the sender, with telephone and fax number, and date of submission
ةيكمسلا ورثلاو ةعازلا او ةيـناـيحلا ورثـلا ادإاـيــحلا ةــحص ســق 
...........: ةرازولا بتكم / يعارلا قطنلا................................ـــلا.........................ةدـيـــــلا..............................خرتلا.............................: اويحلا بص سا..........................اوــنـلا................: اوـيحلا وـ  ..................نجلا ................لا  : ـيـطـقلا دـع................ ................ضلا ءــ خر  : لا دـع…………………................ : ـفنلا دع................يلا ضاعا ..............هر ىطـلا قلا..............ىـطـلا ـلا..............يحشتلا لا
By dr.khaled fujairah municipality
1
 
Sampling exam Blood parasite
 ..............هـتشلا ضلا :دع / نـيلا..............د ............................حم .............. طش  ..............م ..............زا ..............م اوي ..............أ ..………………… ءعأ ..............وطلا حلا ـيـتـكسيف ول يس ـيـيلا وكم وي ءيي بـيــطلا ــسا..............تلا تس ـــلا..…………………ـيــوتلا............................خرتلا……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Blood parasite
Included Blood Parasite
1. Bovine anaplasmosis (Tick Fever)2. Theileriosis (East Coast Fever)3. Bovine Babesiosis (Red Water Fever)4. Trypanosomosis
Tick fever (bovine anaplasmosis)
IntroductionCauseOccurrence and spreadAnimal susceptibilityClinical signsPost mortem examinationDiagnosis
Introduction
Is an infectious, non-contagious, per acute to chronic transmissible hemoparasitic disease of ruminants(cattle) and is caused mainly by Anaplasma marginale, a member of the order Rickettsiales.
Cause
Anaplasmosis is caused by two types of the parasite:-1-Anaplasma marginaleThat invades and multiplies in red blood cells. As the disease progresses, infected and evenuninfected red blood cells are destroyed mainly in the liver and spleen, resulting in an increasinganemia and even death in severe cases.2- Anaplasma centralLocated centrally in the RBC- relatively non pathogenic.
By dr.khaled fujairah municipality
2
 
Sampling exam Blood parasite
Occurrence
 
and
 
spread
Any stage of the cattle tick’s life cycle can become infected after feeding on animal carryingAnaplasma organisms in its blood stream.The organism multiplies in the tick and will pass to later stages of the tick life cycle.However, it does not appear the infection is passed on to the eggs in B microplus. Consequently, thenext generation of ticks will not be infected unless they also feed on a carrier animal
1.
T
here fore an infected stage of the tick must transfer to a susceptible animal fortransmission to occur.2.Because the adult male tick is more mobile and lives longer than other stages, it is themost likely stage to transmit the disease.3.Biting flies can transmit the disease but are less efficient vectors than ticks. Mechanicaltransmission via veterinary instruments (needles, dehorners etc) is also possible and theorganism can cross the placenta to the foetus.
Clinical signs
The severity of symptoms is age related, but acutely affected animals will show:1. Rapid loss of condition;2. Transient fever (40o - 41oC at peak infection);3. Weakness and respiratory distress particularly after exercise;4. Depression and loss of appetite;5. Mucous membranes pale (anemia) then yellow (jaundice).6. Urine is often brown due to bile pigments, but not red as in babesiosis;Severely affected animals may die.
 
Post mortem examination
1. Cattle that die of anaplasmosis are generally very anemic and jaundiced.2. Blood is thin and watery and the spleen is enlarged.3. The liver may be mottled and yellow-orange and the gall bladder is often enlarged and contains4.thick brown or green bile.5. Hemoglobin in the urine is not found in cattle that die of anaplasmosis, as in cases withleptospirosis, bacillary hemoglobinurria, and several other infectious diseases of cattle.
Diagnosis
History, clinical signs and post mortem lesions are often suggestive of anaplasmosis, but it isimpossible to make an accurate diagnosis based on these signs alone.The best method of identifying the agent in infected animals is by microscopically examination ofstained thin blood films.
Making Blood Smears for Tick Fever Diagnosis
When to take smearsHow to make a thin blood smearThick smearsHints for better diagnostic results
By dr.khaled fujairah municipality
3

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