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Magnet

Magnet

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Published by utp

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: utp on Jul 29, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/14/2013

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Magnet
Iron filings that have oriented in the magnetic field producedby a bar magnetMagnetic field linesof asolenoidwhich are similar to a bar magnet as illustrated above with the iron filingsA
magnet
(from Greek μαγνήτης λίθος, "Magnesianstone")is a material or object that produces amagnetic field. Thismagnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the mostnotable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on otherferromagneticmaterials and attracts or repels othermagnets.A
permanent magnet
is one that stays magnetized, suchas a magnet used to hold notes on arefrigeratordoor.Materials which can be magnetized, which are also the onesthat are strongly attracted to a magnet, are calledferromagnetic. These includeiron,nickel,cobalt, somerare earth metalsand some of theiralloys, and some naturally occurring minerals such aslodestone. Permanent magnetsare made from "hard" ferromagnetic materials which aredesigned to stay magnetized, while "soft" ferromagneticmaterials like soft iron are attracted to a magnet but don'ttend to stay magnetized.An
is made from a coil of wire which acts asa magnet when anelectric currentpasses through it, butstops being a magnet when the current stops. Often anelectromagnet is wrapped around a core of ferromagnetic
 
material like steel, which enhances the magnetic fieldproduced by the coil.Although ferromagnetic materials are the only ones stronglyenough attracted to a magnet to be commonly considered"magnetic", all other substances respond weakly to amagnetic field, by one of several other types of magnetism.Paramagneticmaterials, such asaluminumandoxygenare weakly attracted to a magnet.Diamagneticmaterials, suchascarbonandwater, which include all substances not having another type of magnetism, are weakly repelled by amagnet. The overall strength of a magnet is measured by itsmagnetic moment, while the local strength of the magnetismin a material is measured by itsmagnetization.
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