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SimpsonSSSP07

SimpsonSSSP07

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Published by: Youssef on Jul 29, 2010
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02/13/2013

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Emotion in Relationships 1
 Running Head 
: EMOTION IN RELATIONSHIPS
Developmental Antecedents of Emotion in Romantic Relationships
Jeffry A. SimpsonW. Andrew CollinsSiSi TranKatherine C. HaydonUniversity of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus
Correspondence
: Correspondence should be addressed to Jeffry A. Simpson, Departmentof Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 E. River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0344 (e-mail:simp008@umn.edu
 
).
Key Words
: Attachment, emotions, romantic relationships, peer relationships
Word Count 
: 7540
12-18-06 
 
Emotion in Relationships 2
Developmental Antecedents of the Emotion in Romantic Relationships
Some of life’s most intense emotions are experienced within close relationships.Berscheid and Reis (1998) have claimed that identifying the origins and the profile of emotions experienced within a relationship is essential if one wants to really understandits most important features. Given this reality, one might expect that a great deal wouldbe known about the experience and express of emotions in close relationships,particularly how relationship experiences at critical stages of social development forecastthe type and intensity of emotions that are experienced in adult attachment relationships.Surprisingly little, however, is known about these issues.In this chapter, we use attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1980) andattachment constructs as organizing frameworks to fill these crucial conceptual andempirical gaps in our knowledge emotions in close relationships. After reviewingrelevant theory and research on this topic, we discuss the findings of a recent longitudinalstudy that has continuously tracked the same sample of individuals from birth into earlyadulthood.
Attachment Theory and Emotions
Attachment theory (Bowlby 1969, 1973, 1980) provides a unique andcomprehensive account of the normative (i.e., species-typical) and individual difference(i.e., individual-specific) processes that typically generate emotions in close relationships.According to Bowlby, the attachment system serves two primary functions: (1) to protectvulnerable individuals from potential threats, and (2) to regulate negative affect oncethreats are perceived. The normative component of attachment theory specifies the
 
Emotion in Relationships 3stimuli and contexts that habitually evoke and terminate certain kinds of emotions and thesequence of emotions usually experienced in response to certain relational events (such asthe sequence of protest, despair, and detachment that typically transpires duringprolonged separations from attachment figures; see Bowlby, 1969). The individualdifference component of the theory articulates how an individual’s personal history of receiving care and support from attachment figures over the lifespan shapes the goals,working models, and coping strategies that s/he recruits when emotion-eliciting stimuli orevents happen in relationships. Most of the research that has examined the impact of early attachment experiences on later relationships to date has focused on the distinctionbetween secure and insecure attachment histories (e.g., Roisman, Collins, Sroufe, &Egeland, 2005; Thompson, 1999; Waters & Cummings, 2000).Kobak and Sceery (1988) have proposed that the way in which individualsperceive and manage emotions in relationships ought to depend on nature of the workingmodels they have formed given their unique attachment experiences. These authorssuggest that:“Secure attachment [should] be organized by rules that allowacknowledgement of distress and turning to others for support, avoidantattachment by rules that restrict acknowledgement of distress and theassociated attachment attempts to seek comfort and support, andambivalent attachment by rules that direct attention toward distress andattachment figures in a hypervigilant manner that inhibits the developmentof autonomy and self-confidence” (p. 142).

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