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Poverty and Inequality in India - 02

Poverty and Inequality in India - 02

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Published by: sukumarnandi@hotmail.com on Jun 21, 2008
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A REVIEW OF THE STUDIES ONPOVERTY AND INEQUALITY IN INDIA
 
M. Phil dissertation, Calcutta University, 1980BySukumar NandiDepartment of EconomicsAshutosh CollegeCalcutta.1979.
 
CONTENTS
IntroductionPage
Chapter 1:1Concept of Poverty and InequalityConcept 2:4Poverty in IndiaChapter 3: 20Studies on InequalityChapter 4:63Causes of Poverty and Inequality in IndiaChapter 5:75Conclusion: The Anti-Poverty ProgrammesNotes82Bibliography99
 
INTRODUCTION
Poverty and inequality are complex phenomena and theirmajor discussions and consequent policy implications deserve theattention of all concerned. A criticalreview of the academicresearch on these phenomena reveals a variety of perspectives.Major differences in this respect have characterized the discussionsof the definition of poverty and its measurement on the one hand,and of the elaboration of the concept of inequality in the context of a developing economy on the other. Policy implications also differin different studies, which is a natural outcome of the differences inapproach. One of these approaches starts from the concept of subsistence level for defined with some standard norm of nutrition.A second approach has been to use income and expenditure datafor constructing a poverty line below which poverty will be said toexist. In this approach data relating to per capita income orexpenditure are utilized to establish the concept of a poverty level.Broadly speaking, these two approaches distinguish the majorstudies on poverty so far undertaken in India.Measurement of economic inequality can be regarded as oneaspect of the wider problem of securing social equity and justice.In a sense it is perhaps the most important aspect of the broaderconcept. Economic inequality prevents the realization of the goalsof social equity and justice. Economic justice becomes animportant issue in the context of widespread poverty; the contrastbecomes sharper when there exist small islands of affluence in anocean of poverty. The studies on inequality in India generally usesuch standard measures as the Lorenz ratio though other morerefined measure have also been used. Poverty and economicinequality can be regarded as the twin aspects of the sameproblem. In India again the problem of poverty and inequality is

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