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Eikev Love the Proselyte

Eikev Love the Proselyte

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Published by DanielALevine
This week’s Parashah includes the mitzvah of loving the convert–a mitzvah that requires much clarification. Does the mitzvah imply an obligation to give precedence to a convert over a Jew from birth? Does it include an instruction to accept converts? And how does the love of a convert differ from the love of all Jews? These issues, and more, are discussed in the weekly article.
This week’s Parashah includes the mitzvah of loving the convert–a mitzvah that requires much clarification. Does the mitzvah imply an obligation to give precedence to a convert over a Jew from birth? Does it include an instruction to accept converts? And how does the love of a convert differ from the love of all Jews? These issues, and more, are discussed in the weekly article.

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Categories:Business/Law
Published by: DanielALevine on Jul 30, 2010
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07/30/2010

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original

 
 
Love
 
the
 
Convert:
 
How?
 
You
 
shall
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
(Devarim
 
10:19)
 
In
 
recent
 
years,
 
in
 
tandem
 
with
 
emergence
 
of 
 
large
scale
 
charity
 
organizations,
 
we
 
have
 
become
 
accustomed
 
to
 
"charity
 
pamphlets"
 
that
 
bring
 
individual
 
cases
 
of 
 
poverty
 
and
 
tragedy
 
to
 
the
 
attention
 
of 
 
potential
 
donors.
 
True
 
to
 
their
 
purpose,
 
these
 
pamphlets
 
utilize
 
the
 
media
 
of 
 
graphics,
 
prose,
 
and
 
drama,
 
in
 
seeking
 
to
 
arouse
 
the
 
readers'
 
compassion
 
for
 
the
 
specific
 
cause.
 
At
 
the
 
same
 
time,
 
accompanying
 
halachic
 
material
 
is
 
often
 
presented,
 
highlighting
 
the
 
great
 
virtue
 
of 
 
donating
 
to
 
the
 
cause.
 
One
 
of 
 
the
 
questions
 
that
 
arises
 
in
 
this
 
connection
 
is
 
how
 
to
 
present
 
cases
 
involving
 
a
 
ger 
 
tzeddek 
—the
 
convert
 
within
 
Israel.
 
On
 
the
 
one
 
hand,
 
we
 
are
 
commanded
 
in
 
a
 
specific
 
instruction
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert,
 
as
 
the
 
verse
 
in
 
our
 
Parashah
 
clearly
 
states:
 
"You
 
shall
 
love
 
the
 
convert"
 
(Devarim
 
10:19).
 
Naturally,
 
this
 
verse
 
has
 
been
 
used
 
by
 
charity
 
organizations
 
in
 
prompting
 
potential
 
donors
 
to
 
contribute
 
to
 
the
 
cause
 
of 
 
needy
 
gerei 
 
tzeddek 
.
 
On
 
the
 
other,
 
as
 
we
 
will
 
see
 
below,
 
the
 
instruction
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
does
 
not
 
necessary
 
have
 
direct
 
implications
 
concerning
 
the
 
order
 
in
 
which
 
contributions
 
to
 
charity
 
should
 
be
 
given.
 
The
 
mitzvah
,
 
as
 
will
 
be
 
shown,
 
requires
 
a
 
certain
 
amount
 
of 
 
elucidation.
 
The
 
Order
 
of 
 
Donation
 
As
 
noted,
 
the
 
Torah
 
explicitly
 
instructs
 
us
 
in
 
loving
 
the
 
convert:
 
"You
 
shall
 
love
 
the
 
convert."
 
In
 
light
 
of 
 
this
 
explicit
 
mitzvah
,
 
we
 
might
 
think
 
it
 
incumbent
 
on
 
us
 
to
 
give
 
preference
 
to
 
the
 
convert
 
in
 
every
 
form
 
of 
 
donation.
 
Where
 
limited
 
charity
 
funds
 
are
 
available
 
(this
 
is
 
usually
 
the
 
case),
 
we
 
would
 
have
 
to
 
give
 
the
 
poor
 
convert
 
in
 
advance
 
of 
 
those
 
born
 
to
 
Jewish
 
parentage.
 
Likewise,
 
where
 
there
 
is
 
only
 
one
 
gift
 
to
 
give,
 
and
 
the
 
choice
 
must
 
be
 
made
 
between
 
a
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
and
 
a
 
ger 
 
tzeddek 
,
 
the
 
verdict
 
would
 
fall
 
in
 
favor
 
of 
 
the
 
convert.
 
Indeed,
 
at
 
least
 
with
 
regard
 
to
 
giving
 
gifts,
 
this
 
is
 
the
 
ruling
 
issued
 
by
 
Rabbi
 
Eliyahu
 
Kushlevsky
 
(
Davar 
 
Shebeminyan
,
 
mitzvah
 
17).
 
Discussing
 
a
 
case
 
in
 
which
 
both
 
a
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
and
 
a
 
convert
 
require
 
a
 
specific
 
item,
 
or
 
a
 
case
 
in
 
which
 
a
 
person
 
has
 
a
 
choice
 
of 
 
whom
 
to
 
conduct
 
his
 
business
 
dealings
 
with,
 
Rabbi
 
Kushlevsky
 
writes
 
that
 
the
 
convert
 
should
 
be
 
preferred.
 
The
 
logic
 
of 
 
this
 
decision
 
is
 
simple:
 
although
 
we
 
are
 
obligated
 
to
 
love
 
all
 
Jews,
 
Parshas
 
Eikev 5770
20
This week's Parashah includes the mitzvah of loving the convert--a mitzvah that requires much clarification.Does the mitzvah imply an obligation to give precedence to a convert over a Jew from birth? Does it includean instruction to accept converts? And how does the love of a convert differ from the love of all Jews? Theseissues, and more, are discussed in the weekly article. This week's "laws of charity" covers the obligation of apoor person, a debtor, and an employer, to donate to charity.
 
the
 
obligation
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
is
 
doubled,
 
giving
 
him
 
preference
 
over
 
his
 
Jewish
 
brethren.
 
Rabbi
 
Kushlevsky
 
proceeds
 
to
 
cite
 
an
 
example
 
of 
 
this
 
in
 
the
 
tale
 
of 
 
Ruth,
 
where
 
we
 
find
 
that
 
Boaz
 
preferred
 
Ruth
 
the
 
convert
 
to
 
Jewish
 
poor.
 
However,
 
in
 
contrast
 
to
 
this
 
rationale,
 
we
 
find
 
that
 
in
 
questions
 
of 
 
saving
 
lives
 
and
 
returning
 
lost
 
property,
 
the
 
Mishnah
 
(
Horios
 
13a)
 
clearly
 
places
 
a
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
before
 
the
 
convert:
 
"A
 
kohen
 
precedes
 
a
 
levi 
,
 
a
 
levi 
 
precedes
 
a
 
yisrael 
,
 
a
 
yisrael 
 
precedes
 
a
 
mamzer 
,
 
a
 
mamzer 
 
precedes
 
a
 
nasin
,
 
a
 
nasin
 
precedes
 
a
 
ger 
,
 
and
 
a
 
ger 
 
precedes
 
a
 
freed
 
slave."
 
The
 
Mishnah
 
concludes
 
that
 
this
 
order
 
of 
 
preference
 
only
 
applies
 
among
 
equals;
 
when
 
they
 
are
 
unequal,
 
a
 
mamzer 
 
Torah
 
scholar
 
takes
 
precedence
 
even
 
over
 
the
 
Kohen
 
Gadol!
 
Just
 
as
 
the
 
ordinary
 
Jew
 
is
 
given
 
preference
 
with
 
regard
 
to
 
sustaining
 
his
 
life,
 
so,
 
it
 
would
 
seem,
 
the
 
Jew
 
is
 
to
 
be
 
given
 
preference
 
with
 
regard
 
to
 
donations,
 
gifts,
 
and
 
regular
 
dealings—the
 
difference
 
is
 
merely
 
quantitative.
 
Moreover,
 
this
 
ruling
 
is
 
clearly
 
implied
 
in
 
the
 
words
 
of 
 
Rambam
 
and
 
Shulchan
 
 Aruch
:
 
"If 
 
several
 
paupers
 
are
 
before
 
him,
 
or
 
several
 
captives,
 
and
 
there
 
is
 
insufficient
 
funding
 
to
 
sustain
 
or
 
clothe
 
or
 
redeem
 
all
 
of 
 
them,
 
a
 
kohen
 
precedes
 
a
 
levi 
,
 
a
 
levi 
 
precedes
 
a
 
yisrael 
,
 
a
 
yisrael 
 
precedes
 
a
 
chalal 
 
 
and
 
a
 
nasin
 
precedes
 
a
 
ger 
"
 
(
Matnos
 
 Aniyim
 
8:17).
 
Rambam
 
thus
 
rules
 
that
 
the
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
precedes
 
the
 
convert
 
even
 
concerning
 
"clothing"—a
 
ruling
 
also
 
found
 
in
 
Shulchan
 
 Aruch
 
(
Yoreh
 
De'ah
,
 
251:9).
 
The
 
same
 
order
 
of 
 
preference
 
would
 
presumably
 
apply
 
to
 
all
 
other
 
forms
 
of 
 
giving,
 
for
 
which
 
preference
 
is
 
given
 
to
 
Jews
 
from
 
birth
 
(unlike
 
the
 
above
 
ruling
 
of 
 
Davar 
 
Shebeminyan
).
 
The
 
question
 
we
 
must
 
ask
 
is
 
how
 
this
 
order
 
of 
 
preference
 
can
 
be
 
resolved
 
with
 
the
 
special
 
mitzvah
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert.
 
Surely,
 
in
 
view
 
of 
 
the
 
special
 
mitzvah
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
ger 
 
tzeddek 
,
 
he
 
should
 
be
 
given
 
preference
 
over
 
the
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth,
 
and
 
not
 
vice
 
versa
?
 
Love
 
of 
 
the
 
Convert
 
In
 
his
 
letter
 
to
 
Obadiah
 
the
 
convert,
 
Rambam
 
opens
 
with
 
words
 
of 
 
praise
 
that
 
are
 
generally
 
unfound
 
in
 
his
 
other
 
writings:
 
"I
 
received
 
the
 
question
 
of 
 
the
 
master
 
Obadiah,
 
the
 
wise
 
and
 
learned
 
convert,
 
may
 
Hashem
 
reward
 
him
 
for
 
his
 
work,
 
may
 
a
 
perfect
 
recompense
 
be
 
bestowed
 
upon
 
him
 
by
 
the
 
G
d
 
of 
 
Israel,
 
under
 
whose
 
wings
 
he
 
has
 
sought
 
cover."
 
Rambam's
 
admiration
 
for
 
the
 
convert
 
is
 
apparent
 
throughout
 
the
 
letter.
 
After
 
ruling
 
that
 
the
 
convert
 
may
 
pray
 
with
 
the
 
same
 
words
 
as
 
a
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth,
 
Rambam
 
concludes
 
with
 
the
 
following
 
words:
 
"Do
 
not
 
consider
 
your
 
ori
gin
 
as
 
inferior.
 
While
 
we
 
are
 
the
 
descendants
 
of 
 
Avraham,
 
Yitzchak,
 
and
 
Yaakov,
 
you
 
derive
 
from
 
Him
 
through
 
whose
 
word
 
the
 
world
 
was
 
created."
 
In
 
another
 
letter
 
to
 
Obadiah,
 
Rambam
 
reveals
 
the
 
core
 
of 
 
our
 
relationship
 
with
 
converts:
 
a
 
relationship
 
of 
 
love.
 
"Know
 
that
 
the
 
obligation
 
which
 
the
 
Torah
 
has
 
placed
 
upon
 
us
 
with
 
respect
 
to
 
converts
 
is
 
great:
 
with
 
respect
 
to
 
father
 
and
 
mother,
 
we
 
have
 
been
 
commanded
 
with
 
respect
 
to
 
honor
 
and
 
awe,
 
and
 
with
 
respect
 
to
 
prophets,
 
to
 
obey
 
them,
 
and
 
it
 
is
 
possible
 
for
 
one
 
to
 
honor,
 
hold
 
in
 
awe,
 
and
 
obey
 
one
 
whom
 
one
 
does
 
not
 
love;
 
but
 
with
 
respect
 
to
 
converts,
 
we
 
have
 
been
 
commanded
 
concerning
 
love,
 
something
 
which
 
is
 
given
 
over
 
to
 
the
 
heart—"You
 
shall
 
love
 
the
 
convert,"
 
as
 
we
 
have
 
been
 
commanded
 
to
 
love
 
His
 
Name—"You
 
shall
 
love
 
Hashem,
 
your
 
G
d,"
 
and
 
the
 
Holy
 
One,
 
blessed
 
be
 
He,
 
loves
 
the
 
convert,
 
as
 
it
 
says,
 
'and
 
loves
 
the
 
convert,
 
in
 
giving
 
him
 
food
 
and
 
clothing
 
(Shemos
 
10:18)."
 
It
 
is
 
noteworthy
 
that
 
Rambam
 
writes
 
that
 
one
 
is
 
not
 
obligated
 
to
 
love
 
one
 
father
 
and
 
mother,
 
or
 
the
 
prophet.
 
This
 
statement
 
demands
 
scrutiny:
 
surely,
 
the
 
obligation
 
to
 
"love
 
your
 
fellow
 
as
 
yourself"
 
(Vayikra
 
19:17)
 
applies
 
even
 
to
 
father
 
and
 
prophet?
 
Why
 
is
 
the
 
obligation
 
of 
 
love
 
reserved
 
for
 
the
 
convert
 
alone?
 
Moreover,
 
the
 
comparison
 
of 
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert
 
with
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
Hashem
 
is
 
particularly
 
striking,
 
and
 
is
 
repeated
 
by
 
Rambam
 
in
 
his
 
Hilchos
 
De'os
 
(6:4).
 
Rambam
 
writes
 
that
 
although
 
a
 
person
 
is
 
obligated
 
to
 
love
 
each
 
and
 
every
 
Jew,
 
the
 
obligation
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
is
 
doubled.
 
He
 
proceeds
 
to
 
conclude
 
that
 
"He
 
has
 
instructed
 
us
 
in
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert
 
as
 
in
 
His
 
own
 
love,
 
as
 
it
 
is
 
written,
 
"You
 
shall
 
love
 
Hashem,
 
your
 
God."
 
What
 
is
 
so
 
special
 
about
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert?
 
Two
 
Forms
 
of 
 
Love
 
 
We
 
may
 
glean
 
some
 
understanding
 
of 
 
the
 
matter
 
by
 
means
 
of 
 
introducing
 
the
 
commentary
 
of 
 
Rambam
 
to
 
the
 
mitzvah
 
of 
 
"love
 
you
 
neighbor
 
as
 
yourself."
 
Ramban
 
writes
 
that
 
the
 
obligation
 
cannot
 
be
 
understood
 
on
 
a
 
literal
 
level.
 
It
 
is
 
impossible
 
for
 
a
 
person
 
to
 
love
 
another
 
to
 
the
 
degree
 
he
 
loves
 
himself.
 
Rather,
 
the
 
intention
 
of 
 
the
 
instruction
 
is
 
that
 
a
 
person
 
should
 
act
 
towards
 
his
 
fellow
 
with
 
love,
 
 just
 
as
 
he
 
acts
 
towards
 
himself:
 
"The
 
instruction
 
of 
 
the
 
Torah
 
is
 
to
 
love
 
one's
 
fellow
 
in
 
every
 
matter,
 
 just
 
as
 
he
 
loves
 
himself 
 
with
 
all
 
goodness."
 
Ramban
 
proceeds
 
to
 
base
 
this
 
understanding
 
on
 
the
 
wording
 
of 
 
the
 
verse:
 
"It
 
is
 
possible
 
that
 
since
 
the
 
verse
 
says
 
"to
 
your
 
neighbor"
 
(
lere'acha
)
 
 
to
 
make
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
both
 
comparable
 
in
 
his
 
mind.
 
For
 
sometimes
 
one
 
loves
 
his
 
neighbor
 
with
 
the
 
things
 
that
 
are
 
known
 
to
 
enhance
 
his
 
material
 
happiness,
 
but
 
not
 
with
 
wisdom,
 
and
 
qualities
 
that
 
are
 
similar
 
to
 
it….
 
And
 
that
 
his
 
beloved
 
friend
 
should
 
be
 
blessed
 
with
 
happiness,
 
property,
 
honor,
 
knowledge
 
and
 
wisdom,
 
while
 
not
 
comparing
 
himself 
 
to
 
his
 
friend,
 
by
 
wishing
 
in
 
his
 
heart
 
that
 
he
 
himself 
 
should
 
be
 
more
 
than
 
his
 
friend
 
in
 
all
 
that
 
is
 
good.
 
For
 
there
 
should
 
not
 
be
 
this
 
kind
 
of 
 
petty
 
 jealousy,
 
as
 
the
 
verse
 
commands,
 
"like
 
one
 
does
 
for
 
one's
 
self,"
 
and
 
thus
 
he
 
should
 
not
 
make
 
limits
 
to
 
his
 
love."
 
The
 
distinction
 
made
 
by
 
Ramban
 
will
 
allow
 
us
 
to
 
understand
 
the
 
puzzling
 
statements
 
of 
 
Rambam
 
concerning
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert.
 
The
 
scriptural
 
command
 
to
 
love
 
"to
 
one's
 
neighbor"
 
expresses
 
an
 
obligation
 
to
 
act
 
with
 
love,
 
but
 
does
 
not
 
describe
 
an
 
instruction
 
to
 
love
 
in
 
one's
 
heart—for
 
it
 
is
 
impossible
 
to
 
love
 
another
 
as
 
one
 
loves
 
oneself.
 
With
 
regard
 
to
 
a
 
convert,
 
however,
 
Rabbi
 
Yaakov
 
Kaminetzky
 
(
Emes
 
Le'Yaakov 
,
 
Vayikra
 
19:17)
 
has
 
pointed
 
out
 
that
 
the
 
verse
 
uses
 
the
 
expression
 
of 
 
true
 
love:
 
not
 
love
 
"to
 
the
 
convert"
 
(
leger 
),
 
but
 
"of 
 
the
 
convert"
 
(
es
 
hager 
).
 
One
 
must
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
in
 
the
 
full
 
sense
 
of 
 
the
 
word:
 
not
 
merely
 
love
 
of 
 
deed,
 
but
 
a
 
profound
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
heart.
 
In
 
this
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert
 
is
 
comparable
 
to
 
love
 
of 
 
Hashem,
 
of 
 
which
 
the
 
verse
 
uses
 
the
 
same
 
terminology:
 
"You
 
shall
 
love
 
Hashem,
 
your
 
G
d."
 
Just
 
as
 
there
 
is
 
an
 
obligation
 
to
 
love
 
Hashem—not
 
a
 
love
 
of 
 
deed
 
but
 
a
 
love
 
of 
 
heart,
 
which
 
Rambam
 
describes
 
as
 
attaining
 
closeness
 
with
 
and
 
"knowledge
 
of"
 
G
d
 
(
Hilchos
 
De'os
,
 
chap.
 
2)—so
 
we
 
are
 
instructed
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
in
 
a
 
conceptual
 
sense.
 
We
 
must
 
endear
 
his
 
sacrifice;
 
we
 
are
 
obligated
 
to
 
mentally
 
embrace
 
his
 
entry
 
beneath
 
the
 
wings
 
of 
 
the
 
Shechinah;
 
and
 
our
 
hearts
 
must
 
be
 
full
 
of 
 
love
 
towards
 
him.
 
Thus,
 
in
 
his
 
letter
 
to
 
Obadiah
 
the
 
convert,
 
Rambam
 
writes
 
that
 
whereas
 
one
 
is
 
not
 
obligated
 
to
 
love
 
one's
 
father
 
and
 
mother,
 
one
 
is
 
obligated
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert.
 
The
 
love
 
of 
 
each
 
and
 
every
 
Jew
 
can
 
be
 
expressed
 
in
 
terms
 
of 
 
deeds;
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert
 
must
 
find
 
expression
 
in
 
the
 
depths
 
of 
 
the
 
heart.
 
They 
 
are
 
different 
 
 forms
 
of 
 
love
.
 
Only
 
the
 
latter,
 
concludes
 
Rambam—the
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert—is
 
comparable
 
to
 
the
 
love
 
of 
 
Hashem.
 
Love
 
of 
 
the
 
Heart
 
In
 
the
 
light
 
of 
 
the
 
above
 
understanding,
 
we
 
can
 
perhaps
 
find
 
an
 
answer
 
to
 
the
 
seeming
 
contradiction
 
between
 
the
 
obligation
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert,
 
and
 
the
 
order
 
of 
 
precedence
 
that
 
places
 
the
 
Jew
 
before
 
the
 
convert.
 
Surely
 
the
 
obligation
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
should
 
give
 
him
 
precedence
 
over
 
the
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth?
 
Yet,
 
although
 
the
 
convert
 
is
 
included
 
in
 
the
 
mitzvah
 
to
 
love
 
one's
 
neighbor
 
as
 
one's
 
own
 
self 
 
(an
 
explicit
 
verse
 
includes
 
him
 
in
 
this
 
instruction),
 
the
 
Mishnah
 
teaches
 
that
 
there
 
are
 
distinctions
 
between
 
one
 
"neighbor"
 
and
 
another.
 
A
 
kohen
 
takes
 
precedence
 
over
 
a
 
levi 
,
 
a
 
levi 
 
over
 
a
 
yisrael 
,
 
and
 
a
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
over
 
a
 
convert.
 
All
 
Jews
 
form
 
the
 
limbs
 
of 
 
a
 
single
 
body;
 
yet
 
this
 
does
 
not
 
mean
 
that
 
there
 
are
 
no
 
distinctions
 
between
 
one
 
limb
 
and
 
another.
 
With
 
regard
 
to
 
this
 
question,
 
the
 
special
 
mitzvah
 
of 
 
love
 
unique
 
to
 
the
 
convert
 
does
 
not
 
affect
 
his
 
placement
 
on
 
the
 
ladder
 
of 
 
preference.
 
The
 
mitzvah
 
is
 
not
 
to
 
love
 
"to
 
the
 
convert"—to
 
act
 
towards
 
him
 
with
 
love—but
 
to
 
"actually"
 
love
 
the
 
convert—a
 
conceptual
 
love
 
reserved
 
for
 
the
 
convert
 
alone.
 
The
 
instruction
 
to
 
love
 
the
 
convert
 
accentuates
 
his
 
unparalleled
 
sacrifice
 
and
 
draws
 
us
 
close
 
to
 
his
 
heroic
 
deed,
 
yet
 
makes
 
no
 
impact
 
on
 
the
 
order
 
of 
 
donation.
 
This
 
does
 
not
 
mean
 
that
 
it
 
is
 
wrong
 
to
 
mention
 
the
 
mitzvah
 
of 
 
loving
 
the
 
convert
 
in
 
request
 
for
 
charity
 
donations.
 
One
 
who
 
gives
 
charity
 
to
 
a
 
convert,
 
heightening
 
his
 
appreciation
 
of 
 
the
 
convert's
 
deed
 
and
 
bringing
 
his
 
love
 
of 
 
the
 
convert
 
to
 
the
 
fore,
 
has
 
fulfilled
 
the
 
mitzvah
 
of 
 
"you
 
shall
 
love
 
the
 
convert."
 
However,
 
it
 
is
 
important
 
to
 
note
 
that
 
in
 
terms
 
of 
 
order
 
of 
 
precedence,
 
it
 
is
 
the
 
Jew
 
from
 
birth
 
who
 
comes
 
first.
 

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