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Sažeta gramatika engleskog jezika

Sažeta gramatika engleskog jezika

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Published by: Kristina Stojanović on Jul 31, 2010
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Causitive HAVE
HAVE + DIRECT OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLEIn this construction, in which the causitive use of the verb
have
is expressed,
have
means "cause", that is havesth. done by sbd. else. It's used when you don't want to do sth. yourself so you arrange for sbd. else, generally a professional, to do it for you.
Get
is sometimes used in this construction instead of 
have
. This construction is passive in meaning.He has his teeth checked regularly. Does he have his teeth checked regularly?He doesn't have them checked regularly. He must get them checked tomorrow.
Emphatic DO
The auxiliary verb DO can be used for emphasis, especially when contradicting a previous statement:Why didn't you tell me the truth? -But I did tell you the truth.I simply don't believe you love me. -But I do love you.
QUESTION TAGS
These are short additions to sentences, asking for agreement or confirmation. After neagative sentences, we usethe ordinary interrogative, and after affirmative statements we use the negative interrogative:He smokes,
doesn't he
? She isn't studying music,
is she
?He wasn't driving the car,
was he
? They went away,
didn't they
?You haven't been here for a long time,
have you
? They could understand him,
couldn't they
? NOTE that statements containing words such as
neither, no
(adjective),
none, no one, nobody, nothing
,
scarcely, barely, hardly, hardly ever, seldom, rarely
, etc. are treated as negative statements:No salt is allowed,
is it 
? Nothing was said,
was it 
?Peter hardly ever goes to parties,
does he
? NOTE that when the subject of the sentence is
anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, none, neither, everybody,everyone, somebody, someone
we use the pronoun
they
as subject of the tag:I don't suppose anyone will volunteeer,
will they
? No one would object,
would they
.Neither of them complained,
did they
? Everyone warned you,
didn't they
?Someone had recognized him,
hadn't they
?ALSO NOTE: I am very smart,
am I not/ aren't I
?Let's go out,
shall we
?Close the door,
will you
?
The Passive Voice
It is used when the main interest is in the verb activity and the person doing the action is unknown, unimportantor understood. If the agent responsible for the action is necessary to make the meaning clear, it follows the verbwith BY.The subject of a passive sentence is the object of an active sentence. When the agent is an indefinite pronoun or the noun"people" it's usually omitted. The verb in the passive consists of the auxiliary verb BE ( which is in thesame form as the verb in the active sentence) and the past participle of the main verb:The Present Simple Passive AM, IS, ARE + past participleThe Present Continuous Passive: AM, IS, ARE BEING + past participleThe Present Perfect Passive: HAVE, HAS BEEN + past participleThe Past Simple Passive: WAS, WERE + past participleThe Past Continuous Passive: WAS, WERE BEING + past participleThe Past Perfect Passive: HAD BEEN + past participlePassive with the modals: Modal verb + BE + past participle
 
Also there are the passive forms of infinitive, gerund and participle.Sentences beginning "They say" or "People say" are often expressed in the passive form:Active: They say/People say that he is very talented.Passive: 1. It is said that he is very talented.2. He is said to be very talented.Other verbs which can take this passive construction are:
think, feel, expect, know, believe, understand,consider, find, report, suppose
:Active: Everybody knows that this young man is very clever.Passive: 1. It is known that this young man is very clever.2. This young man is known to be very clever.The infinitive construction in the passive depends on whether or not the verb in the noun clause refers to thesame time as the verb in the main clause. If the time is the same use the present infinitive. If the verb in thenoun clause refers to a time before the verb in the main clause, use the perfect infinitive:It is said that he is clever. He is said to be clever.It was said that he was clever. He was said to be clever.It is said that he has done it. He is said to have done it.It is said that he did it. He is said to have done it.It was said that he had done it. He was said to have done it.ALSO It is said that he is working here. He is said to be working here.It is said that he was working here. He was said to have been working here.
SUBJUNCTIVE
The Present Subjunctive:1. I own 1. we own 1. I be 1. we be2. you own 2. you own 2. you be 2. you be3. he/she/it own 3. they own 3. he/she/it be 3. they beThe Past Subjunctive:1. I owned 1. we owned 1. I were 1. we were2. you owned 2. you owned 2. you were 2. you were3. he/she/it owned 3. they owned 3. he/she/it were 3. they wereThe Past Perfect Subjunctive:had owned/had been for all personsIt is used:1. in subordinate clauses after:
I wish, if, as if, as though, if only, it's (high,about) time, I'd rather, would toGod
,
imagine, suppose, supposing,
etc. to express wishes and regrets:present:
If only
I were you.past:
If only
I had been you.future:
If only
I would be you.You can use WAS for the 1st and the 3rd person singular with
I wish
.2. In conditional clauses: present: If I were you, I wouldn't go there.past: If I had been you, I wouldn't have done that.3. in THAT clauses after the verbs:
order, insist, recommend, demand, request, ask, propose, suggest,advocate rule, advise, agree, arrange, command,
etc. ( only the present subjunctive is used here).The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in British English:
 
They requested that the money
be/ should be
repaid at once.He suggests that she
stay/should stay
here.4. in subordinate clauses of purpose after:
that, for fear that, lest
( only the present subjunctive is used here).The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in British English:We eat lest we
die/should die.
 5. in THAT clauses after:
it is better/desirable/important/essential/necessary/improbable/strange/vital/
etc.(only the present subjunctive is used here). The form SHOULD + infinitive is also possible here in BritishEnglish:It is important that every child
have/should have
a good education.6. in certain epressions:
as it were
,
if I were you; were I you
,
be that as it may
,
(God) bless you!
,
come Monday(Tuesday, etc.)
,
come what may
,
(God) damn it!
,
 far be it from
(or 
 for 
)
me, till death do us part 
,
God save our  gracious Queen; long live our noble Queen., Heaven forfend/forbid 
,
 so be it 
,
 suffice it to say
,
woe betide
,
 peace be with you
,
long live the king 
,
the powers that be
,
albeit 
(a synthesis of 
all be it 
, i.e.
although it be
),
truthbe told 
,
rue the day
,
would that it were
,
God rest ye merry gentlemen
, etc.
CONDITIONALS
ZERO CONDITIONALThis type of conditional clauses refers to "all time", not just present, past or future. It denotes general truths, andthe conjuction IF can be replaced here by
when, whenever, every time:
 
IF + Present Simple, Present Simple
If you water your plants, they grow.TYPE 1This type refers to the present or future. It's real, meaning that it expresses real conditions. Since the condition is possible, its result is also probable.
 IF + Present Simple, WILL/CAN/MAY + infinitiveImperative
If you buy a car, it will/can/may cost you a lot. Ako kupiš auto, to će te koštati/može da te košta/možda ćekoštati puno.If you buy a car, drive it carefully. Ako kupiš auto, vozi ga pažljivo.TYPE 2This type refers to the present and the future, but its unreal, that is it expresses unreal conditions, therefore theresults of such conditions are also unreal. Since this type is unreal and hypothetical, we have to express theunreality by using the subjunctive:
IF + Past Simple, WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + infinitive
If you invited me, I would go to your party. Kada bi me pozvao, otišla bih na tvoju žurku.If I were you, I wouldn't do it. Da sam na tvom mestu, ne bih to uradila.Although the form of the past subjunctive of TO BE is WERE for all persons, the form WAS is possible in the3rd person singular:If it were/was warmer, I'd go swimming. Da je toplije, išao bih na plivanje.TYPE 3This type refers to the past and it is unreal. The condition is unreal, therefore its result is improbable. Becauseit's unreal and hypothetical, the subjunctive is used: 

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