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Automotive Batteries

Automotive Batteries

Ratings: (0)|Views: 164|Likes:
Published by Nishant Katare
A very good manual published by Toyota Motor Sales, USA, giving just the data needed to know more about Batteries, especially the Automotive ones.
A very good manual published by Toyota Motor Sales, USA, giving just the data needed to know more about Batteries, especially the Automotive ones.

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Published by: Nishant Katare on Jul 31, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/04/2013

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General
The battery is the primary "source" of electricalenergy on Toyota vehicles. It stores chemicals, notelectricity. Two different types of lead in an acidmixture react to produce an electrical pressure. This
electrochemical reaction
changes chemical energyto electrical energy.
Battery Functions
1. ENGINE OFF:
Battery energy is used tooperate the lighting and accessory systems.
2. ENGINE STARTING:
Battery energy is usedto operate the starter motor and to providecurrent for the ignition system during cranking.
3. ENGINE RUNNING:
Battery energy may beneeded when the vehicle's electrical loadrequirements exceed the supply from the chargingsystem.In addition, the battery also serves as a
voltagestabilizer
, or large filter, by absorbing abnormal,transient voltages in the vehicle's electrical system.Without this protection, certain electrical or electroniccomponents could be damaged by these highvoltages.
Battery Types
1.
 
PRIMARY CELL:
The chemical reaction totallydestroys one of the metals after a period of time.Small batteries for flashlights and radios areprimary cells.
2. SECONDARY CELLS:
The metals and acid mixturechange as the battery supplies voltage. Themetals become similar, the acid strength weakens.This is called
discharging
. By applying current tothe battery in the opposite direction, the batterymaterials can be restored. This is called
charging
.Automotive lead-acid batteries are secondary cells.
3. WET-CHARGED:
The lead-acid battery is filled withelectrolyte and charged when it is built. Duringstorage, a slow chemical reaction will cause self-discharge. Periodic charging is required. ForToyota batteries, this is every 5 to 7 months.
4. DRY-CHARGED:
The battery is built, charged,washed and dried, sealed, and shipped withoutelectrolyte. It can be stored for 12 to .18 months.When put into use, it requires adding electrolyteand charging.
5. LOW-MAINTENANCE:
Most batteries for Toyotavehicles are considered low-maintenancebatteries. Such batteries are built to reduceinternal heat and water loss. The addition of watershould only be required every 15,000 miles or so.
BATTERIES  
Page 1
 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
 
Construction
1. CASE:
Container which holds and protects allbattery components and electrolyte, separatescells, and provides space at the bottom forsediment (active materials washed off plates).Translucent plastic cases allow checkingelectrolyte level without removing vent caps.
2. COVER:
Permanently sealed to the top of thecase; provides outlets for terminal posts, ventholes for venting of gases and for batterymaintenance (checking electrolyte, adding water).
3. PLATES:
Positive and negative plates have a gridframework of antimony and lead alloy. Activematerial is pasted to the grid ... brown-coloredlead dioxide (Pb02) on positive plates, gray-colored sponge lead (Pb) on negative plates. Thenumber and size of the plates determine currentcapability ... batteries with large plates or manyplates produce more current than batteries withsmall plates or few plates.
4. SEPARATORS:
Thin, porous insulators (wovenglass or plastic envelopes) are placed betweenpositive and negative plates. They allow passageof electrolyte, yet prevent the plates from touchingand shorting out.5.
CELLS:
An assembly of connected positive andnegative plates with separators in between iscalled a cell or element. When immersed inelectrolyte, a cell produces about 2.1 volts(regardless of the number or size of plates).Battery cells are connected in series, so thenumber of cells determines the battery voltage. A"1 2 - volt" battery has six cells.
6. CELL CONNECTORS:
Heavy, cast alloy metalstraps are welded to the negative terminal of onecell and the positive terminal of the adjoining celluntil all six cells are connected in series.
7. CELL PARTITIONS:
Part of the case, the partitionsseparate each cell.
8. TERMINAL POSTS:
Positive and negative posts(terminals) on the case top have thick, heavycables connected to them. These cables connectthe battery to the vehicle's electrical system(positive) and to ground (negative).
9. VENT CAPS:
Types include individual filler plugs,strip-type, or box-type. They allow controlledrelease of hydrogen gas during charging (vehicleoperation). Removed, they permit checkingelectrolyte and, if necessary, adding water.
10. ELECTROLYTE:
A mixture of sulfuric acid(H2SO4) and water (H2O). It reacts chemicallywith the active materials in the plates to create anelectrical pressure (voltage). And, it conducts theelectrical current produced by that pressure fromplate to plate. A fully charged battery will haveabout 36% acid and 64% water.
BATTERIES  
Page 2
 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
 
CELL THEORY
A lead-acid cell works by a simple principle: when twodifferent metals are immersed in an acid solution, achemical reaction creates an electrical pressure.One metal is brown-colored lead dioxide (Pb02). Ithas a positive electrical charge. The other metal isgray colored sponge lead (Pb). It has a negativeelectrical charge. The acid solution is a mixture ofsulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H20). It is calledelectrolyte.If a conductor and a load are connected between thetwo metals, current will flow. This
discharging
willcontinue until the metals become alike and the acid isused up. The action can be reversed by sendingcurrent into the cell in the opposite direction. This
charging
will continue until the cell materials arerestored to their original condition.
BATTERIES  
Page 3
 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 

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