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Metalworking Tig Welding

Metalworking Tig Welding

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Published by Joe Blake

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Published by: Joe Blake on Jun 21, 2008
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01/25/2013

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LECTURE 6GAS TUNGSTEN ARC (TIG) WELDING(GTAW)
 
I. GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW OR TIG) – THE PROCESS ANDITS USES
A. The process and applications:1. An electric arc is maintained between the base metal and a non–consumable tungstenelectrode.a. Power may be AC, DC or combination.2. The arc is maintained in an envelope of inert gas to shield the weld from atmosphericcontamination.3. Filler metal is provided by a bare metal rod held by the operator.4. The process was developed in the late 1930’s.a. Originally known as heliarc welding.b. Originally designed for non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and magnesium.B. Advantages of TIG welding:1. High quality welds.2. Little or no cleanup after weld, is necessary.3. Visibility of weld pool is good because no smoke is created.4. Very little postweld cleanup because filler metal is not transferred along the arc.5. It can be used in all positions.6. No slag produced, hence no chipping and cleanup.7. Allows maximum heat control for precision work.8. On some setups, heat input can be controlled and fine tuned by the use of a footpedal or trigger.9. When used on thinner metals the highly focused arc virtually eliminates warpage(distortion).C. Disadvantages of TIG welding:1. Slow process / low productivity.2. Equipment is expensive.
II. TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS
 A. AC (Alternating Current): Electrical current that reverses its flow at set intervals.B. Amperage: A measurement of the rate of flow of electrical current.C. Arc: Flow of electricity through an air gap.D. Arc Flash: Burn to the eyes or skin caused by the ultraviolet and infrared lightemitted by an arc.
 
E. DC (Direct Current): Electrical current that flows in one direction only.F. Direct Current Reverse Polarity (DCRP): A welding setup where the torch electrodelead is connected to the welding machine’s positive output terminal, and the work lead (ground) is connected to the welding machine’s negative output terminal.G. Direct Current Straight Polarity (DCSP): A welding setup where the torch lead isconnected to the welding machine’s negative output terminal and the work lead(ground) is connected to the welding machine’s positive output terminal.H. Ground: An object that makes an electrical connection with the earth.I. High Frequency: a very high voltage (several thousand volts), extremely lowamperage current that alternates at high frequency – several million cycles persecond. It is superimposed on the welding current to help establish and maintainthe arc.J. Polarity: The direction of flow of electrical current in a DC circuit.K. Tungsten: A common name for the virtually non-consumable GTAW electrode andprinciple metal from which most are constructed.L. Voltage: A measurement of the electromotive force or pressure that causes currentto flow in a circuit.M. Arc Voltage: The voltage across the welding arc.N. CFH: Cubic feet per hour; an abbreviation for the measurement of the amount of shielding gas used while welding.O. Electrode stickout: The amount past the cone or nozzle that the welding electrodeprotrudes.P. Penetration: The distance that the weld fusion line extends below the surface of thebase metal.
III. EQUIPMENT FOR TIG WELDING
A. Protective Equipment:1. Cap (visor turned back).2. Safety glasses.3. Long sleeve shirt.4. Pants (no cuff).5. Leather boots.6. Leather gauntlet type welding gloves.7. Welding helmet with at least a number 8 lens.Welding Current (Amps) Lowest Shaded Lens Comfort shaded LensLess than 50 amps 8 1050-150 amps 8 12150-500 amps 10 14B. Welding equipment:1. Torch:a. Torch nozzles direct the flow of gas and insure that the gas is directed over theweld puddle.(1). The nozzle also helps to keep the gas focused around the tungsten to helpcool it.

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