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Coffey M W - On Some Log-cosine Integrals Related to Zeta(3, Zeta(4), And Zeta(6) - J. Comput. and Appl. Math. 159 (2003) 205-215

Coffey M W - On Some Log-cosine Integrals Related to Zeta(3, Zeta(4), And Zeta(6) - J. Comput. and Appl. Math. 159 (2003) 205-215

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Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 159 (2003) 205–215
www.elsevier.com/locate/cam
On some log-cosine integrals related to
(3),
(4), and
(6)
Mark W. Coey
Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Received 10 October 2002; received in revised form 22 January 2003
Abstract
We evaluate a variety of log-cosine integrals, one of which has value a rational multiple of 

(4), whileothers evaluate to the form
[
a
(6) +
b
(3
=
4)
2
(3)], where
a¿
0 is rational and
b
is 1 or 2, and
is theRiemann zeta function. We show that these results may be obtained starting from a known tabulated result.The derivation yields results for certain classes of logarithm-trigonometric integrals, and indicates how furtheranalytic results on digamma series may be obtained.c
2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MSC:
33B; 33E; 11M
Keywords:
Gamma function; Digamma function; Polygamma function; Riemann zeta function; Dilogarithm function;Trilogarithm function; Log-cosine integrals
Previously, a certain log-cosine integral has been considered in connection with certain digammaseries [3,6]. This integral has value a rational multiple of 

(4), where
is the Riemann zeta function[7,10,15,12]. We show that this integral may be alternatively evaluated starting from a known tabu- lated result [9]. The derivation yields results suitable for certain classes of logarithmic-trigonometric integrals. We then describe in Appendix A how some integrals related to
2
(3) may be further usedin the study of digamma series of higher degree. Appendix B additionally discusses the nonlinearEuler sum introduced in Appendix A. Besides demonstrating an alternative approach, our logarith-mic integrals have potential application in the evaluation of classical, semiclassical, and quantumentropies of position and momentum [13,5]. Other quantum mechanical applications could include the evaluation of matrix elements of powers of the logarithm function. In the classical case, theseintegrals would be of interest when the position distribution function of the motion is written interms of trigonometric functions. In the quantum case, trigonometric wavefunctions lead to similarintegrals.
0377-0427/03/$-see front matterc
2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/S0377-0427(03)00438-2
 
206
M.W. Coey/Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 159 (2003) 205215
As a result of investigating other integrals containing parameters, we ÿrst verify the evaluation1
 
0
Â
2
ln
2
(2cos
Â=
2)d
Â
=11
4
180=112
(4)
:
(1)As corollaries, results for some digamma series follow [3]. With an elementary change of variable, the integral of Eq. (1) is equivalent to8
 
=
20
u
2
[ln2 + ln(cos
u
)]
2
d
u:
(2)This expression gives a sum of three integrals, one of which is completely elementary. Beforeevaluating the other two logarithmic integrals, we develop some analytic results.The evalution of the integral
 I 
(
a;p
) =
 
=
20
 x
cos
p
1
 x
sin
ax
d
 x;
Re
p¿
0
;
|
a
|
¡
|
p
+ 1
|
(3)is known in terms of the gamma
and digamma
 
functions [9,p. 453]. We may note in passing that integrating this result with respect to the parameter
a
gives an integral closely related to thatconsidered by other authors [3],
 
1
y
 I 
(
a;p
)d
a
=
 
=
20
cos
p
1
 x
cos
yx
d
 x
2
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
(
p=
2 + 1)
;
(4)where the last term on the right-hand side follows from the beta function
B
. From thetabulation [9],
 I 
(
a;p
) =
2
(
p
+1)
(
p
)[
 
(
p
1
)
 
(
p
2
)]
(
p
1
)
(
p
2
)
; p
1
= (
p
+
a
+ 1)
=
2
; p
2
= (
p
a
+ 1)
=
2
;
(5)it follows that
9
 I 
(
a;p
)
9
a
=
2
(
p
+2)
(
p
)
(
p
1
)
(
p
2
)
{−
[
 
(
p
1
)
 
(
p
2
)]
2
+
 
(
p
1
) +
 
(
p
2
)
}
;
(6)where
 
is the derivative of the digamma function. By putting
a
= 0, we have
 J 
p
9
 I 
(
a;p
)
9
a
a
=0
=
 
=
20
 x
2
cos
p
1
 x
d
 x
=
2
(
p
+1)
(
p
)
2
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
:
(7)Then, dierentiating with respect to the exponent
p
, we have1
d
 J 
p
d
p
=1
 
=
20
 x
2
cos
p
1
 x
ln(cos
 x
)d
 x
=2
(
p
+1)
(
p
)
2
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
ln2 +
 
(
p
)
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2] +
 

[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]2
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
:
(8)
 
M.W. Coey/Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 159 (2003) 205215
207
In particular, we have for the second term in expression (2),1
d
 J 
p
d
p
p
=1
=1
 
=
20
 x
2
ln(cos
 x
)d
 x
=
2
24
ln2 +
 

(1)2
 
(1)
;
(9)where
=
 
(1)
0
:
57721566490 is the Euler constant,
 
(1) =
2
=
6, and
 

(1) =
2
(3).Similarly, taking the second derivative of 
p
gives1
d
2
 J 
p
d
p
2
=1
 
=
20
 x
2
cos
p
1
 x
ln
2
(cos
 x
)d
 x
=2
(
p
+1)
(
p
)
2
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
ln2 +
 
(
p
)
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2] +
 

[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]2
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
2
+
 
(
p
)
12
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2] +12dd
p 

[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
 
[(
p
+ 1)
=
2]
:
(10)In particular, since
 

(1) =
4
=
15, we haved
2
 J 
p
d
p
2
p
=1
=
 
=
20
 x
2
ln
2
(cos
 x
)d
 x
=
1440[11
4
+ 60
2
ln
2
2 + 720ln2
(3)]
;
(11)giving the third term in expression (2). By combining terms, including Eqs. (9) and (11), we obtain Eq. (1). In the ÿnal result (1), both the ln
2
2 and
(3) contributions cancel out.Similarly, starting with successive derivatives with respect to the parameter
a
in Eq. (6), onemay obtain logarithmic integrals with higher powers of 
x
in the integrand. On the other hand, usinghigher derivatives of 
p
than in Eq. (10) gives integrands with log-cosine to degrees greater thanquadratic. These types of integrals have potential application in classical and quantum mechanicsin the calculation of position and momentum entropies [13,5] and matrix elements of the logarithm function.In addition, the asymptotic relation between classical and quantum entropies involves log-trigonometric integrals [13]. These integrals arise because the WKB approximation [14] to the wave- function has a cosine phase function factor. Next, we remark on the classes of integrals which may be obtained by ÿrst dierentiating theintegral
of Eq. (3)with respect to the exponent
p
,
9
 I 
(
a;p
)
9
p
=
2
(
p
+1)
(
p
)
(
p
1
)
(
p
2
)[
 
(
p
1
)
 
(
p
2
)]
×
ln2 +
 
(
p
) +12[
 
(
p
1
) +
 
(
p
2
)] +12
 
(
p
1
)
 
(
p
2
)
 
(
p
1
)
 
(
p
2
)

:
(12)

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