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Waldschmidt M - Algebraic Values of Analytic Functions - J Comput. and Appl. Math. 160 (2003) 323-333

Waldschmidt M - Algebraic Values of Analytic Functions - J Comput. and Appl. Math. 160 (2003) 323-333

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Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 323–333
www.elsevier.com/locate/cam
Algebraic values of analytic functions
Michel Waldschmidt
Institut de Mathàematiques de Jussieu, Universitàe P. et M. Curie (Paris VI), Thàeorie des Nombres Case 247, 175 rue du Chevaleret, 75013 Paris, France
Received 24 October 2002; received in revised form 16 April 2003
Abstract
Given an analytic function of one complex variable
f
, we investigate the arithmetic nature of the valuesof 
f
at algebraic points. A typical question is whether
f
(
) is a transcendental number for each algebraicnumber
. Since there exist transcendental entire functions
f
such that
f
(
)
(
)
Q
[
] for any
¿
0 and anyalgebraic number
, one needs to restrict the situation by adding hypotheses, either on the functions, or onthe points, or else on the set of values.Among the topics we discuss are recent results due to Andrea Surroca on the number of algebraic pointswhere a transcendental analytic function takes algebraic values, new transcendence criteria by Daniel Delbosconcerning entire functions of one or several complex variables, and Diophantine properties of special valuesof polylogarithms.c
2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Arithmetic functions; Algebraic values; Transcendence criterion; Diophantine analysis; Transcendentalfunctions
1. Introduction
At theend of XIXth century, after the proof by Hermite and Lindemann of the transcendence of e
for nonzero algebraic
, the question arose (see [13]): (*)
Does a transcendental analytic function usually takes transcendental values at algebraic points? 
E-mail address:
miw@math.jussieu.fr(M. Waldschmidt).
URLs:
miw/articles/pdf/avaf-chennai.pdf 0377-0427/$-see front matterc
2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/S0377-0427(03)00637-X
 
324
M. Waldschmidt/Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 323–333
In the example of the exponential function e
 z
, the word “usually” stands for avoiding the exception
=0. Recall also that a
transcendental 
function is a function
f
(here a complex valued function in asingle complex variable) such that, for any nonzero polynomial
P
C
[
 X;Y 
], the function
P
(
 z;f
(
 z
))is not the zero function. If 
f
is meromorphic in all of 
C
, this just means that
f
is not a rationalfunction. If 
f
is an
entire
function, namely a function which is analytic in
C
, to say that
f
is atranscendental function amounts to say that it is not a polynomial.However in 1886 Weierstrass found that a positive answer to the initial question (
) can holdonly for restricted classes of functions: he gave an example of a transcendental entire function whichtakes rational values at all rational points. He also suggested that there exist transcendental entirefunctions which take algebraic values at any algebraic point. After the early works of Strauss andStackel at the end of XIXth century, one knows now that for each countable subset
C
and eachdense subset
C
there is a transcendental entire function
f
such that
f
(
)
. According to[9], in case the countable set
is contained in
R
, then the same conclusion holds also for a densesubset
R
.Denote by
Q
the ÿeld of complex algebraic number (
Q
is the algebraic closure of 
Q
into
C
). An-other construction due to Stackel produces an entire function
f
whose derivatives
f
(
)
, for
=0
;
1
;:::
,all map
Q
into
Q
. Furthermore, Faber reÿned the result in
f
(
)
(
Q
)
Q
(
i
) for any
¿
0. Later(1968), A.J. van der Poorten constructed a transcendental entire function
f
such that
f
(
)
(
)
Q
(
)for any
¿
0 and any
Q
. Surroca [16]recently revisited this construction of van der Poorten by  providing, for such a function
f
, a sharp lower bound for the number of 
Q
of bounded degreeand height such that
f
(
) has also a bounded height (see Section2).One may notice that all these constructions may be worked out so that the growth of the con-structed function
f
is as small as possible (see [9]): given any transcendental entire function
, onemay require
|
f
|
 R
6
|
|
 R
for all suciently large
R
, where
|
f
|
 R
:= sup
|
 z
|
=
 R
|
f
(
 z
)
|
:
On the other hand Elkies and Surroca give, for a transcendental analytic function
f
, upper boundsfor the number of 
Q
of bounded degree and height such that
f
(
)
Q
has also bounded degreeand height. We discuss this topic in Section2.In view of such results, one needs to restrict the initial question (
). Most often the restriction ison the class of analytic functions: for instance one requires that the considered function satisÿes somedierential equation. The case of entire functions satisfying a linear dierential equation provides thestrongest results, related with Siegel’s
functions [7], Chapter 5 Ref. [7] contains most references to the subject before 1998, including Siegel
and
G
functions. Philippon
-functions are introducedin Ref. [14]. Another class of functions, which are analytic only in a neighborhood of the origin, have also been introduced by Siegel under the name of 
G
-functions [7], Chapter 5, Section 7. More recently, generalizations of transcendence and independence results related to modular functionsto more general classes of functions have been introduced by Philippon with his new class of 
 K 
-functions [14]: typical such functions are Ramanujan
P
,
Q
and
R
functions.Another type of dierential equation is related with the solution, by Gel’fond, of Hilbert’s seventh problem, and gives rise to the Schneider-Lang criterion. Once again this criterion started from a
 
M. Waldschmidt/Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 160 (2003) 323–333
325
transcendence result, it provides a general statement on the values of analytic functions, and then ityields new transcendence results (here in connection with algebraic groups). A number of variationshave been produced. In Section3we quote a new result by Delbos which is a variant of a result byBombieri [1]dealing with functions of several variables satisfying algebraic dierential equations. A fashionable topic nowadays is the study of the arithmetic nature of special values of polyloga-rithms. Despite the fact that very few information is available so far on the values of Riemann zetafunction, one may expect that extending the investigations to multiple zeta values will prove to bea fruitful direction. We consider this topic in Section4where we notice that the open problem of algebraic independence of logarithms of algebraic numbers reduces to a linear independence questionon the values of multiple polylogarithms at algebraic points: the point is that for
n
¿
1, (log(1
 z
))
n
is a multiple polylogarithm.
2. Algebraic values of analytic functions, following Surroca
In the course of his Diophantine investigations, Elkies [6] devoted attention to the number of rational points of bounded height lying on a transcendental curve
C
. Assume
C
is a planar curve, in
C
2
, and denote by
C
(
Q
) the intersection
C
Q
2
. One expects indeed the number of (
;ÿ
)
C
(
Q
)with
h
(
)
6
 N 
and
h
(
ÿ
)
6
 N 
to be quite small compared with the number of 
Q
with
h
(
)
6
 N 
.Here,
h
(
p=q
)=max
{
log
|
p
|
;
log
q
}
for
p=q
Q
with gcd(
p;q
)=1 and
q¿
0. In particular, given aninterval
I
R
(the problem is local), the number of 
p=q
Q
I
with
h
(
p=q
)
6
 N 
is not too farfrom e
 N 
.A special case of Elkies result reads as follows:
Let
f
be a transcendental real analytic function on an open subset of 
R
containing an interval 
I
.
For
N ¿
0,
consider the set
 N 
=
{
 x
Q
I
;
f
(
 x
)
Q
; h
(
 x
)
6
 N; h
(
f
(
 x
))
6
 N 
}
:
Then
,
for each
¿
0,
there exists
0
¿
0
such that
|
 N 
|
6
e
N 
 for
¿
 N 
0
:
Several questions then arise: is this estimate best possible? Is it possible to improve it for inÿnitelymany
(in place of all suciently large
)? Do similar results hold for
algebraic points
on atranscendental curve, in place of rational points?These questions, and much more, are addressed by Surroca [16]. Denote by
h
(
) the absolutelogarithmic height of an algebraic number
:
h
(
) =1[
Q
(
) :
Q
]log
 M 
(
)
;
where
 M 
(
) =
v
max
{
1
;
|
|
v
}
is Mahler’s measure of 
(and
v
ranges over the set of normalized absolute values of 
Q
(
)). For
=
p=q
Q
, one recovers the previous deÿnition of 
h
(
p=q
).

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