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Yang X - Approximations for Constant e and Their Applications - J. Math. Anal. & Appl. 262 (2001) 651-659Ratings: (0)|Views: 10|Likes: 1

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Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications

262,

651–659 (2001)doi:10.1006/jmaa.2001.7592, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

Approximations for Constant

e

and Their Applications

Xiaojing Yang

Department of Mathematics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaSubmitted by L. Debnath

Received January 9, 2001Two equalities for the approximation of constant

e

and their applications areconsidered.

2001 Academic Press

Key Words:

Hardy’s inequality; Carleman’s inequality.

1. INTRODUCTIONIt is well known that the constant

e

plays an important role in many areasof mathematics. It is involved in many inequalities, identities, series expan-sions, and some special functions. The well known Hardy’s inequality andCarleman’s inequality are good examples of applications of approximationof

e

.Recently, there have been many results in generalizing the above men-tioned two inequalities by using better approximations of

e

. In [1], Yangand Debnath obtained the inequalities

e

1

−

12

n

+

56

<

1

+

1

n

n

< e

1

−

12

n

+

1

(1.1) As an application of (1.1), they proved the following strengthenedCarleman’s inequality

∞

n

=

1

a

1

a

2

···

a

n

1

n

< e

∞

n

=

1

1

−

12

n

+

1

a

n

(1.2) where

a

n

≥

0,

n

=

1

2

, and 0

<

∞

n

=

1

a

n

<

∞

.In [2], Yang showed that for

x >

0,

e

1

−

12

x

+

1

<

1

+

1

x

x

< e

1

−

12

x

+

1

(1.3)

6510022-247X/01 $35.00

Copyright

2001 by Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

652 xiaojing yang

As an application of (1.3), he obtained the following strengthenedHardy’s inequality

∞

n

=

1

λ

n

+

1

a

λ

1

1

a

λ

2

2

···

a

λ

n

n

1

/σ

n

< e

∞

n

=

1

1

−

λ

n

2

σ

n

+

λ

n

λ

n

a

n

(1.4) where 0

< λ

n

+

1

≤

λ

n

,

σ

n

=

nm

=

1

λ

m

,

a

n

≥

0, 0

<

∞

n

=

1

λ

n

a

n

<

∞

.Sandor and Debnath [3] showed that

e

x

1

+

x<

1

+

1

x

x

< e

2

x

+

12

x

+

1

(1.5)holds for all

x >

0.In [4], Xie and Zhong improved (1.3) and obtained the inequalities

e

1

−

714

x

+

12

<

1

+

1

x

x

< e

1

−

612

x

+

11

for

x >

0

(1.6) As an application of (1.6), they replaced the right side of (1.4) by asharper one:

e

∞

n

=

1

1

−

6

λ

n

/

12

σ

n

+

11

λ

n

λ

n

a

n

.The author of this paper [5] obtained a better approximation of

e

than(1.3),

1

+

1

x

x

< e

1

−

6

k

=

1

b

k

1

+

x

k

(1.7) where

x >

0,

b

1

=

12

,

b

2

=

124

,

b

3

=

148

,

b

4

=

735760

,

b

5

=

111280

,

b

6

=

1945580608

.It is conjectured in [5] that if the following equality holds

1

+

1

x

x

=

e

1

−

∞

k

=

1

b

k

1

+

x

k

x >

0

(1.8)then

b

k

>

0,

k

=

1

2

. As an application of (1.7), Yang [5] obtained the following strengthenedCarleman’s inequality

∞

n

=

1

a

1

a

2

···

a

n

1

n

e

∞

n

=

1

1

−

12

n

+

1

−

124

n

+

1

2

−

148

n

+

1

3

a

n

(1.9) where

a

n

≥

0, 0

<

∞

n

=

1

a

n

<

∞

.In this paper, two equalities are given, which improve the inequalities(1.3) and (1.7); the conjecture in [5] is also proved. As applications, Hardy’sinequality and Carleman’s inequality are strengthened.

approximations for constant

e

653

2. MAIN RESULTS

Theorem 1.

For

x >

0

, let

1

+

xx

x

=

e

1

−

∞

k

=

1

b

k

1

+

x

k

(2.1)Then

b

k

>

0

,

k

=

1

2

, and

b

k

nk

=

1

satisfy the following recursion formula:

b

1

=

12

b

n

+

1

=

1

n

+

1

1

n

+

2

−

n

j

=

1

b

j

n

+

2

−

j

n

=

1

2

(2.2)

Theorem 2.

For

x >

0

, let

1

+

xx

x

=

e

1

−

∞

k

=

1

a

k

2

x

+

1

k

(2.3)

Then the

a

k

nk

=

1

satisfy the following recursion formula

a

1

=

1

a

n

+

1

= −

c

n

+

1

+

n

j

=

1

n

+

1

−

j n

+

1

a

j

c

n

+

1

−

j

n

=

1

2

(2.4) where

c

m

=

−

1

m

if

m

is odd,

1

m

+

1

if

m

is even.Moreover, for

n

=

1

2

,

a

2

n

= −

a

2

n

+

1

<

0

Proof of Theorem

1. Let

y

=

11

+

x

. Then 0

< y <

1 and (2.1) is written as

∞

k

=

1

b

k

y

k

=

1

−

11

−

y

1

−

y y

e

(2.5)Denote

h

y

=

11

−

y

1

−

y

/y

/e

. Then ln

h

y

= −

1

+

1

−

y y

ln

1

−

y

=−

1

+

1

−

y

∞

n

=

1

y

n

−

1

/n

= −

∞

n

=

1

y

n

/n

n

+

1

, hence

h

y

=

e

−

∞

n

=

1

y nn

n

+

1

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