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Avdeeva M O - On the Statistics of Partial Quotients of Finite Continued Fractions - Functional Anal. and Its Appl. 38 (2004), No.2, 79-87

# Avdeeva M O - On the Statistics of Partial Quotients of Finite Continued Fractions - Functional Anal. and Its Appl. 38 (2004), No.2, 79-87

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0016–2663/04/3802–0079c
2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation 79
Functional Analysis and Its Applications, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 79–87, 2004Translated from Funktsional
nyi Analiz i Ego Prilozheniya, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 1–11, 2004Original Russian Text Copyright
c
by M. O. Avdeeva
On the Statistics of Partial Quotientsof Finite Continued Fractions
M. O. Avdeeva
Abstract.
We reﬁne the remainder estimate in the asymptotic formula, earlier obtained in a jointpaper with V. A. Bykovskii, for Arnold’s problem about Gauss–Kuzmin statistics.
Key words:
continued fraction, partial quotient, convergent, Gauss–Kuzmin statistics.
Introduction
The following problem was posed by Arnold in [1, p. 17] (see also [2]).“I. Consider the integer points (
p,q
) lying in the positive quarter of the circle of radius
, i.e.,such that
p
2
+
q
2
2
,
p >
0, and
q >
0. Let us expand each rational number
α
=
p/q
in acontinued fraction (all these fractions are ﬁnite). Let us count the numbers of ones, twos, threes,etc., in the set of elements of all these fractions and ﬁnd the corresponding frequencies, whichdepend on
. Now let
be very large. Is it true that these numbers will be close to the Gaussianprobabilities
p
k
=1log2log
1 +1
k
(
k
+ 2)
?”This problem is closely related to the metric theory of Diophantine approximations, dynamicalsystems, and many other areas of mathematics.One formally represents the expansion of a rational number
r
in a ﬁnite continued fractionof length
s
=
s
(
r
) with integer part
t
0
= [
r
] and partial quotient
t
1
,...,t
s
(which are positiveintegers),
t
s
2, in the form
r
= [
t
0
,t
1
,...,t
s
]
.
(0.1)Let
k
(
) be the total number of partial quotients
t
i
(for all indices
i
, 1
i
s
(
r
)) coincidingwith a positive integer
k
(for all fractions
r
=
α
in the problem posed above). Then the number
(
) =
k
=1
k
(
)is the sum of lengths of the continued fractions of the above-mentioned rational numbers
r
.In the present paper, we prove that
k
(
)
(
)=
p
k
+
O
1log
(0.2)for large
uniformly with respect to
k
. This reﬁnes the answer given to Arnold’s question in thepaper [3], where the weaker remainder estimate
O
((log
)
1
/
2
) was obtained.By deﬁnition, we set
A
i
/B
i
= [
t
i
,...,t
s
] (1
i
s
)
,
(0.3)where
A
i
is an integer,
B
i
is a positive integer, and gcd(
A
i
,B
i
) = 1. Let
s
x
(
r
) be the number of indices
i
in the expansion (0.1) for which
B
i
xA
i
. Since we always have 0
< B
i
A
i
, one canassume that
x
(0
,
1]. It readily follows from (0.3) that the diﬀerence (
k
= 1
,
2
,
3
,...
)
s
(
k
)
(
r
) =
s
1
/k
(
r
)
s
1
/
(
k
+1)
(
r
) (0.4)
This work was ﬁnancially supported by the RFBR (project No. 04-01-97000).

80
is the number of partial quotients
t
i
equal to
k
in the expansion (0.1) and
s
(
r
) =
s
1
(
r
) =
k
=1
s
(
k
)
(
r
)
.
(0.5)For a positive parameter
R
, we set
x
(
R
) =
s
x
(
a/d
)
,
where the sum is taken over all positive integers
a
and
d
such that
a
2
+
d
2
R
2
. Then, replacingthe letter
used at the beginning of the paper by
R
, we obtain
(
R
) =
1
(
R
)
,
k
(
R
) =
1
/k
(
R
)
1
/
(
k
+1)
(
R
)
.
The asymptotic formula (0.2) is an immediate consequence of the following main result of thepaper.
Theorem.
One has
x
(
R
) =3
π
log(1 +
x
)
R
2
log
R
+
O
(
R
2
)
uniformly with respect to
x
(0
,
1]
.
The author thanks V. A. Bykovskii for useful advice and attention.
1. The Heilbronn Correspondence
Recall that if a number
r
has the continued fraction expansion (0.1), then
i
/Q
i
= [
t
0
,t
1
,...,t
i
] (1.1)is called the
i
th convergent
of
r
. Here it is assumed that
i
is an integer,
Q
i
is a positive integer,and gcd(
i
,Q
i
) = 1. We point out that the continued fraction expansion of
i
/Q
i
has the canonicalform(a) (1.1) if
t
i
2;(b)
i
/Q
i
= [
t
0
,t
1
,...,t
i
1
+ 1] if
t
i
= 1.We need the following well-known relations (see [4]):
Q
i
/Q
i
1
= [
t
i
,t
i
1
,...,t
1
]
,
i
1
Q
i
i
Q
i
1
= (
1)
i
.
(1.2)Let
d
be a positive integer. By Ω(
d
) we denote the set of all
d
ω
= (
m,m
,n,n
) of positive integers for which
mn
+
m
n
=
d,
1
m
< m,
1
n < n
,
gcd(
m,m
) = gcd(
n,n
) = 1
.
Heilbronn [5] constructed a bijective mapping of Ω(
d
) onto the set
{
(
a
;
i
)
|
1
a
d/
2
,
gcd(
a,d
) = 1
,
1
i < s
(
a/d
)
}
by the rule
ω
(
a
(
ω
);
i
)
,
(1.3)where the number
a
=
a
(
ω
) and the index
i
are determined by the expansions
n
/n
= [
t
i
,...,t
1
]
, m/m
= [
t
i
+1
,...,t
s
]
,
(1.4)
d/a
= [
t
1
,...,t
s
]
.
(1.5)For each
ω
Ω(
d
), we deﬁne an integer ¯
n
= ¯
n
(
ω
) by the conditions¯
nn
1 (mod
n
)
,
n
/
2
<
¯
n
n
/
2
.
In conclusion of this section, note that the set Ω(
d
) is empty only for
d
= 1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,
6. Moreover,1
< a
(
ω
)
< d/
2for all other values of
d
ω
Ω(
d
).

81
2. Auxiliary Lemmas
Let
θ
(0
,
1
/
2] and
θ
(
d
) =
{
ω
Ω(
d
)
|
a
(
ω
)
θd
}
,
θ
(
d
) =
{
ω
Ω(
d
)
|
θn
(
ω
)
<
¯
n
(
ω
)
θn
(
ω
)
}
.
In general, the sets Ω
θ
(
d
) and
θ
(
d
) do not coincide. However, they do not diﬀer from each other“very much,” which underlies the proof of the following assertion playing an important role below.Let #
be the number of elements in a set
.
Lemma 1.
One has
#Ω
θ
(
d
) = #
θ
(
d
) +
O
(
d
)
uniformly with respect to
θ
(0
,
1
/
2]
.
Proof.
Let
Q
i
=
n
, Q
i
1
=
n, Q
i
/P
i
= [
t
1
,...,t
i
]in (1.2). Then it follows from the second equation in (1.2) that(
1)
i
1
i
n
1 (mod
n
)
.
Since
t
1
2, it follows that
n
/
2
<
(
1)
i
1
i
n
/
2 and ¯
n
= (
1)
i
1
i
. Thus
n
/
|
¯
n
|
= [
t
1
,...,t
i
].Therefore,
|
¯
n
|
/n
is a convergent of the fraction
a/d
= [0
,t
1
,...,t
s
], and moreover (see [4]),
|
¯
n
|
<
1
n
.
With regard to the conditions imposed on
ω
(
a
(
ω
)
θd
for Ω
θ
(
d
) and
θn
(
ω
)
<
¯
n
(
ω
)
θn
(
ω
) for
θ
(
d
)), this implies that the total number of
d
-quadruples in the set-theoretic symmetric diﬀerence(Ω
θ
(
d
)
θ
(
d
))
\
(Ω
θ
(
d
)
θ
(
d
))does not exceed the number of elements in the set
ω
Ω(
d
)
|
¯
n
(
ω
)
θn
(
ω
)
|
<
1
n
(
ω
)or
|
¯
n
(
ω
) +
θn
(
ω
)
|
<
1
n
(
ω
)
.
(2.1)For coprime positive integers
n
and
n
, all integer solutions of the equation
mn
+
m
n
=
d
can berepresented as
m
=
m
0
+
nt, m
=
m
0
n
t
(
t
Z
)
,
where (
m
0
,m
0
) is some given solution. The condition 0
< m
< m
is equivalent to the doubleinequality
m
0
m
0
n
+
n< t <m
0
n
.
Since
m
0
n
m
0
m
0
n
+
n
=
dn
(
n
+
n
)
,
it follows that the number of elements in the set (2.1) does not exceed
(
±
)1
<n<n
<d
1 +
dn
(
n
+
n
)
,
where the symbol (
±
) indicates that the sum is taken over the pairs (
n,n
) such that
|
¯
n
θn
|
<
1
n
or
|
¯
n
+
θn
|
<
1
n
.
Since
n
2, these inequalities imply that
|
¯
n
θn
|
<
12or
|
¯
n
+
θn
|
<
12
.