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http://www.elsevier.com/locate/aim

Advances in Mathematics 187 (2004) 53–97

Euler transformation formula for multiple basichypergeometric series of type

A

andsome applications

Yasushi Kajihara

Ã

Department of Mathematics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Kobe 657-8501, Japan

Received 15 January 2001; accepted 13 August 2003Communicated by A. Lascoux

Abstract

A multiple generalization of the Euler transformation formula for basic hypergeometricseries

2

f

1

is derived. It is obtained from the symmetry of the reproducing kernel forMacdonald polynomials by a method of multiple principal specialization. As applications,elementary proofs of the Pfaff–Saalschutz summation formula and the Gauss summationformula for basic hypergeometric series in

U

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

due to S.C. Milne are given. Some othermultiple transformation and summation formulas for very-well-poised

10

f

9

and

8

f

7

series,balanced

4

f

3

series and

3

f

2

series are also given.

r

2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MSC:

33D67; 33D52; 33D15; 33C20

Keywords:

Multiple basic hypergeometric series of type A; Euler transformation; Macdonaldpolynomials; Pfaff–Saalschutz summation; Watson type transformation; Bailey–Jackson type transforma-tion–summation formula

1. Introduction

In this paper, we derive a multiple generalization of the Euler transformationformula for basic hypergeometric series

2

f

1

:

We obtain our main result(Theorem 1.1) by specializing suitably the well-known symmetry of the reproducing

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Ã

Corresponding author. Present address: Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science,Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan. Fax: +81-6-6850-5327.

E-mail address:

kaji@cr.math.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp.0001-8708/$-see front matter

r

2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.aim.2003.08.012

kernel for Macdonald polynomials[12].As applications of our result, we give
elementary proofs of the Pfaff–Saalschutz summation formula and the Gausssummation formula for basic hypergeometric series in

U

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

due to S.C. Milne[16,17]from the special case of our Euler transformation formula (Proposition 5.1).We also give some other multiple transformation and summation formulas for basicand ordinary hypergeometric series (for example, very-well-poised series, Searstransformation and others).There are many well-known summation and transformation formulas in thetheory of hypergeometric and basic hypergeometric series. One of the mostimportant is the binomial theorem

ð

1

À

u

Þ

À

z

¼

X

k

A

N

½

z

k

k

!

u

k

;

ð

1

:

1

Þ

where we denote by

½

z

n

¼

z

ð

z

þ

1

Þ

?

ð

z

þ

n

À

1

Þ ð

1

:

2

Þ

the (ordinary) Pochhammer symbol. A

q

-analogue of (1.1) is given by

ð

au

Þ

N

ð

u

Þ

N

¼

X

k

A

N

ð

a

Þ

k

ð

q

Þ

k

u

k

:

ð

1

:

3

Þ

Throughout of this paper, we use the notation of

q

-series[5]

ð

a

Þ

N

:

¼ ð

a

;

q

Þ

N

¼

Y

n

A

N

ð

1

À

aq

n

Þ

;

ð

a

Þ

k

:

¼ ð

a

;

q

Þ

k

¼ð

a

Þ

N

ð

aq

k

Þ

N

for

k

A

C

;

ð

1

:

4

Þ

assuming that 0

o

q

o

1

:

We often omit the basis

q

in

q

-shifted factorials.On the other hand, one of the most fundamental transformation formulas forhypergeometric series is the Euler transformation for Gauss’ hypergeometric series

2

F

1

2

F

1

a

;

bc

;

u

¼ ð

1

À

u

Þ

c

À

a

À

b

2

F

1

c

À

a

;

c

À

bc

;

u

;

ð

1

:

5

Þ

where

n

þ

1

F

n

a

0

;

a

1

;

y

;

a

n

b

1

;

y

;

b

n

;

u

¼

X

k

A

N

½

a

0

k

½

a

1

k

?

½

a

n

k

k

!

½

b

1

k

?

½

b

n

k

u

k

:

ð

1

:

6

Þ

Among the most important transformation formulas for basic hypergeometricseries are Heine’s transformation formulas for

2

f

1

series.

2

f

1

a

;

bc

;

q

;

u

¼ð

b

Þ

N

ð

au

Þ

N

ð

c

Þ

N

ð

u

Þ

N

2

f

1

c

=

b

;

uau

;

q

;

b

ð

1

:

7

Þ

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Y. Kajihara / Advances in Mathematics 187 (2004) 53–97

54

¼ð

c

=

b

Þ

N

ð

bu

Þ

N

ð

c

Þ

N

ð

u

Þ

N

2

f

1

abu

=

c

;

bbu

;

q

;

c

=

b

ð

1

:

8

Þ¼ð

abu

=

c

Þ

N

ð

u

Þ

N

2

f

1

c

=

a

;

c

=

bc

;

q

;

abu

=

c

;

ð

1

:

9

Þ

where the basic hypergeometric series

r

þ

1

f

r

is deﬁned by

r

þ

1

f

r

a

0

;

a

1

;

y

;

a

r

c

1

;

y

;

c

r

;

q

;

u

¼

X

n

A

N

ð

a

0

Þ

n

ð

a

1

Þ

n

y

ð

a

r

Þ

n

ð

q

Þ

n

ð

c

1

Þ

n

y

ð

c

r

Þ

n

u

n

:

ð

1

:

10

Þ

The third equality of Heine’s transformation formulas (1.9) is a

q

-analogue of Eulertransformation formula for

2

F

1

(1.5). It is needless to say that these hypergeometricand basic hypergeometric identities frequently appear in many areas of mathematicssuch as in combinatorics, analytic number theory, statistics and representationtheory of Lie algebras.The multiple basic hypergeometric series in

U

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

initiated by Holman et al.[7,8]have been investigated by many researchers from various viewpoints. The mostimportant summation formula for basic hypergeometric series in

U

ð

n

þ

1

Þ

is themultiple

q

ð

a

1

?

a

n

u

Þ

N

ð

u

Þ

N

¼

X

b

A

N

n

ð

u

Þ

j

b

j

D

ð

xq

b

Þ

D

ð

x

Þ

Y

1

p

i

;

j

p

n

ð

a

j

x

i

=

x

j

Þ

b

i

ð

qx

i

=

x

j

Þ

b

i

;

ð

1

:

11

Þ

where

j

a

j ¼

P

ni

¼

1

a

i

:

In this formula,

D

ð

x

Þ ¼

Y

1

p

i

o

j

p

n

ð

x

i

À

x

j

Þ

and

D

ð

xq

b

Þ ¼

Y

1

p

i

o

j

p

n

ð

x

i

q

b

i

À

x

j

q

b

j

Þ

denote the Vandermonde determinants of

x

¼ ð

x

1

;

y

;

x

n

Þ

and

xq

b

¼ð

x

1

q

b

1

;

y

;

x

n

q

b

n

Þ

;

respectively. In our previous work[10], we encountered aterminating version of (1.11) when we determine the explicit coefﬁcients of theraising and lowering operators of row type for Macdonald polynomials. We alsogave a proof of (1.11) based on the identity that a constant function 1 is aeigenfunction of the Macdonald’s

q

-difference operator

D

x

ð

u

;

t

;

q

Þ Á

1

¼

X

K

C

½

1

;

y

;

n

ðÀ

u

Þ

j

K

j

q

j

K

j

2

Y

i

A

K

;

j

e

K

1

À

qx

i

=

x

j

1

À

x

i

=

x

j

¼ ð

u

Þ

n

:

ð

1

:

12

Þ

The terminating version of (1.11) is in fact obtained by a method of multipleprincipal specialization from (1.12). In this paper, we apply the same method toderive the main result of this paper.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Y. Kajihara / Advances in Mathematics 187 (2004) 53–97

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