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Narukawa a - The Modular Properties and the Integral Representations of the Multiple Elliptic Gamma Functions - Avd. in Math. 189 (2004), 247-267

Narukawa a - The Modular Properties and the Integral Representations of the Multiple Elliptic Gamma Functions - Avd. in Math. 189 (2004), 247-267

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http://www.elsevier.com/locate/aim
Advances in Mathematics 189 (2004) 247–267
The modular properties and the integralrepresentations of the multiple ellipticgamma functions
Atsushi Narukawa
1
Department of Mathematics, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
Received 6 June 2003; accepted 26 November 2003Communicated by P. Etingof 
Abstract
We show the modular properties of the multiple ‘‘elliptic’’ gamma functions, which are anextension of those of the theta function and the elliptic gamma function. The modularproperty of the theta function is known as Jacobi’s transformation, and that of the ellipticgamma function was provided by Felder and Varchenko. In this paper, we deal with themultiple sine functions, since the modular properties of the multiple elliptic gamma functionsresult from the equivalence between two ways to represent the multiple sine functions asinfinite products.We also derive integral representations of the multiple sine functions and the multipleelliptic gamma functions. We introduce correspondences between the multiple elliptic gammafunctions and the multiple sine functions.
r
2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MSC:
33B15; 33D05; 33E30; 11F03
Keywords:
Modular property; Multiple elliptic gamma function; Multiple sine function;
q
-Shiftedfactorial; Generalized
q
-polylogarithm
ARTICLE IN PRESS
E-mail address:
narukawa@ruri.waseda.jp.
1
The author recently transferred to The Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company, Tokyo 100-8411,Japan.0001-8708/$-see front matter
r
2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.aim.2003.11.009
 
1. Introduction
The theta function
y
0
ð
z
;
t
Þ
and the elliptic gamma function
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
are defined byinfinite products
y
0
ð
z
;
t
Þ ¼
Y
N
 j 
¼
0
ð
1
À
e
2
p
ðð
þ
1
Þ
t
À
z
Þ
Þð
1
À
e
2
p
ð
t
þ
z
Þ
Þ
;
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ ¼
Y
N
 j 
;
¼
0
1
À
e
2
p
ðð
þ
1
Þ
t
þð
þ
1
Þ
s
À
z
Þ
1
À
e
2
p
ð
t
þ
s
þ
z
Þ
;
then
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
satisfies the difference equation
G
ð
z
þ
t
;
t
;
s
Þ ¼
y
0
ð
z
;
s
Þ
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
:
The elliptic gamma function was originally constructed by Ruijsenaars[10]as aunique solution of difference equations which include the theta function as above.After his work, Felder and Varchenko[3]derived the ‘‘modular property’’ of thisfunction,
G
z
s
;
ts
;
À
1
s
¼
e
p
iQ
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
G
z
À
st
;
À
st
;
À
1
t
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
;
ð
1
Þ
where
Q
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ ¼
z
3
3
ts
À
t
þ
s
À
12
ts
z
2
þ
t
2
þ
s
2
þ
1
þ
3
ts
À
3
t
À
3
s
6
ts
z
Àð
t
þ
s
À
1
Þð
ts
À
t
À
s
Þ
12
ts
:
This formula is an extension of Jacobi’s transformation, in which the groupSL
ð
2
;
Z
Þ
r
Z
2
acts on the parameter of the theta function. Felder and Varchenkodeduced (1) from the modular properties of 
y
0
ð
z
;
t
Þ
and the special value of 
G
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ
:
They also gave a cohomological interpretation to this formula with SL
ð
3
;
Z
Þ
r
Z
3
:
On the other hand, Nishizawa[9]constructed a hierarchy of meromorphicfunctions which includes the theta function and the elliptic gamma function. Hecalled these new functions the multiple elliptic gamma functions
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
;
which are considered as an elliptic analogue of the multiple gamma functions. Theyare defined by certain infinite products called
q
-shifted factorials
ð
x
;
%
q
Þ
ð
r
Þ
N
:
Theysatisfy functional relations, such as
r
ð
z
þ
t
 j 
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ ¼
r
À
1
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
$    
t
 j 
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
:
Conversely he characterized these functions with above relations and initial values.Our main purpose of this paper is to derive the modular properties of the multipleelliptic gamma functions
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
while we discuss the properties of themultiple sine functions
r
ð
z
j
o
1
;
y
;
o
r
Þ
and the multiple Bernoulli polynomials
r
;
n
ð
z
j
o
1
;
y
;
o
r
Þ
:
The hierarchy of the multiple sine functions is defined by Barnes’multiple gamma functions. Those have been studied by Shintani[12], Kurokawa
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A. Narukawa / Advances in Mathematics 189 (2004) 247–267 
248
 
[7,8]. The multiple Bernoulli polynomials are attached to the multiple zeta functionsand the multiple gamma functions as in[1,11].We introduce integral representations and infinite product representations of themultiple sine functions. Then it is shown that there are two ways to represent them asan infinite product. From the equivalence between them, the modular properties of 
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
are obtained. For example, (1) is derived from the two representa-tions of 
3
ð
z
j
o
1
;
o
2
;
o
3
Þ
;
namely
3
ð
z
j
o
1
;
o
2
;
o
3
Þ¼
exp
À
p
6
33
ð
z
j
o
1
;
o
2
;
o
3
Þ
& '
Â
Y
N
 j 
;
¼
0
ð
1
À
e
2
p
ð
z
=
o
1
Àð
þ
1
Þ
o
2
=
o
1
Àð
þ
1
Þ
o
3
=
o
1
Þ
Þð
1
À
e
2
p
ð
z
=
o
3
þ
 j 
o
1
=
o
3
þ
o
2
=
o
3
Þ
Þ
1
À
e
2
p
ð
z
=
o
2
þ
 j 
o
1
=
o
2
Àð
þ
1
Þ
o
3
=
o
2
Þ
¼
exp
þ
p
6
33
ð
z
j
o
1
;
o
2
;
o
3
Þ
& '
Â
Y
N
 j 
;
¼
0
ð
1
À
e
2
p
ðÀ
z
=
o
1
À
 j 
o
2
=
o
1
À
o
3
=
o
1
Þ
Þð
1
À
e
2
p
ðÀ
z
=
o
3
þð
þ
1
Þ
o
1
=
o
3
þð
þ
1
Þ
o
2
=
o
3
Þ
Þ
1
À
e
2
p
ðÀ
z
=
o
2
þð
þ
1
Þ
o
1
=
o
2
À
o
3
=
o
2
Þ
:
Substituting
o
1
¼
t
;
o
2
¼
s
;
o
3
¼ À
1
;
we have (1) and the fact
Q
ð
z
;
t
;
s
Þ ¼ À
13
33
ð
z
j
t
;
s
;
À
1
Þ
:
In general, we use
q
-shifted factorials
ð
x
;
%
q
Þ
ð
r
Þ
N
to describe
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
and
r
ð
z
j
o
1
;
y
;
o
r
Þ
:
The
q
-shifted factorial is the exponential of the generalized
q
-polylogarithm. The general result which we prove is the following theorem.
Theorem.
If r
X
2
;
Im
o
 j 
o
a
0
;
then the multiple elliptic gamma function satisfies theidentity
Y
r
¼
1
r
À
2
z
o
o
1
o
;
y
;
$    
o
o
;
y
;
o
r
o
¼
exp
À
2
p
r
!
rr
ð
z
j
%
o
Þ
& '
:
The remaining part of this paper is devoted to investigate the integralrepresentations of 
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
:
We recall the results in[3,9]again, and regard
r
ð
z
j
t
0
;
y
;
t
r
Þ
as infinite products of 
r
þ
1
ð
z
j
o
1
;
y
;
o
r
þ
1
Þ
:
The paper is organized as follows: In Sections 2 and 3, we review the definition andthe properties of Nishizawa’s multiple elliptic gamma functions and those of themultiple Bernoulli polynomials. Then in Section 4, we introduce the integralrepresentations and the infinite product representations of the multiple sinefunctions. In Section 5, we prove the modular properties of the multiple ellipticgamma functions. In Section 6, we introduce the integral representations of the
ARTICLE IN PRESS
A. Narukawa / Advances in Mathematics 189 (2004) 247–267 
249

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