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Published by gopikrishnan1234
a document on cloud computing
a document on cloud computing

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Published by: gopikrishnan1234 on Aug 01, 2010
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Cloud computing
Introduction
Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, andinformation are provided to computers and other devices on demand.Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client±server in theearly 1980s. Details are abstracted from the users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the Cloud" that supports them. Cloud computingdescribes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on theInternet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and oftenvirtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remotecomputing sites provided by the Internet. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installedlocally on their own computer.The term "Cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the Cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Typical Cloudcomputing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.
 
 
Comparisons
Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with:
y
 
A
utonomic Computing
² "computer systems capable of self-management"
y
 
Client±Server Model
 ± Client±server computing refers broadly to any distributedapplication that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters(clients)
y
 
G
rid Computing
² "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupledcomputers acting in concert to perform very large tasks"
y
 
Mainframe
 ² powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for criticalapplications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing
y
 
U
tility Computing
² the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation andstorage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity´
y
 
P
eer-to-
P
eer
± a distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrastto the traditional client±server model)
A
rchitecture
 
Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of thesoftware systems involved in the delivery of Cloudcomputing, typically involves multiple Cloud componentscommunicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. Thisresembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are moremanageable than their monolithic counterparts. The two most significant components of Cloudcomputing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the partseen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client¶s network (or computer) andthe applications used to access the Cloud via a user interface such as Internet Explorer. The back end of the Cloud computing architecture is the µCloud¶ itself, comprising various computers,servers and data storage devices
 
Characteristics
y
 
A
gility
improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provisiontechnological infrastructure resources
y
 
Cost
is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operationalexpenditure. This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequentintensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained withusage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house)
y
 
D
evice and location independence
enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). Asinfrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via theInternet, users can connect from anywhere.
y
 
Multi-tenancy
enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thusallowing for:
 
Centralization
of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as realestate, electricity, etc.)
 
P
eak-load capacity
increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
 
U
tilization and efficiency
improvements for systems that are often only10±20% utilized
y
 
eliability
is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well designedCloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Nonetheless,many major Cloud computing services have suffered outages, and IT and businessmanagers can at times do little when they are affected
y
 
Scalability
via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performanceis monitored and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using webservices as the system interface. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming ona distributed data grid
y
 
Security
could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focusedresources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data,and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better thanunder traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources tosolving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically logaccesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible.

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