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Hout_ HumDevt

Hout_ HumDevt

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Published by Nikki Deang

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Published by: Nikki Deang on Aug 01, 2010
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10/25/2012

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 1
MATURATION
 
Innately determined sequence of growth andchange that is relatively independent of externalevents
Refers to developmental changes that are
genetically or biologically programmed
 rather than acquired through learning or lifeexperiences.
Human fetus develops according to fixedschedule
Maternal malnutrition, smoking andconsumption of alcohol and drugs can affect thenormal maturation of the fetus.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Pre-natal Period
From conception to birth, lasting about 266 days(nine months)
Germinal Stage
Two-week period followingconception
Conception/Fertilization: whenone of the millions of sperm penetrates theovum, its outer membrane changes and becomesimpenetrable to the millions of the remainingsperm
Zygote: fertilized ovum
When the zygote develops, itattaches itself to the wall of theuterus. Once the zygote isimplanted, the embryonic stagebegins
Embryonic Stage
Two to eight weeks afterconception
Cells divide and begin todifferentiate into bone, muscle and body organs
Since the embryo is still developing and veryfragile, most miscarriages occur in this stage andwhen most major birth defects occur
Fetal Stage
Two months afterconception until birth
Fetus develops vital organs and physicalcharacteristics that are distinctly humanPlacenta 
Organ that connectsthe blood supply of themother to that of thefetus, acts as a filter,allowing nutrients passthrough while keepingout some toxicsubstancesTeratogens
Any agent that can harm a developing fetuscausing deformities or brain damage
May be a disease, drug or anotherenvironmental agent
NEWBORN’S ABILITIESGenetic Developmental Program
23 chromosomes from each parent
Involves the development of neural connectionsin the brain
 
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
 
 
 
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2
SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
Genetic program guides the development of anumber of motor and sensory functions
Vision
: at one month, an infant can distinguishthe mother’s face from that of a stranger,provided that the infant also hears the mother’svoice. At 3 months, even without the mother’svoice. At 3 to 4 years old, visual abilities areequal to those of an adult
Hearing
: one-month old infant have very keenhearing. By 6 months, infants have developedthat ability to make all the sounds that arenecessary to learn the language in which they areraised
Touch
: Newborns have well-developed sense of touch. Touch will elicit a number of reflexes likegrasping and sucking
Smell and Taste
: Six-week-old infants cansmell the difference between their mother and astranger. Newborns have an inborn preferencefor both sweet and salt and an inborn dislike of bitter tasting things.! Although genetic program is largely responsiblefor the early appearance of these sensoryabilities,
environmental stimulation
 encourages the infant to use and further developthese sensory abilities.! Environment affects the
rate
at which thechildren acquire the skills,
not the ultimate skilllevel
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
Refers to stages of motor skills that all infantspass through as they acquire the muscularcontrol necessary for making coordinatedmovements
SITTING UP ALONE
Ave 5.5 months
 
CRAWLING
Ave 10 months
 
WALKING ALONE
Ave 12.1 months
 EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
 
results from our biological capacity to produceemotional expressions which interact with thepositive or negative feedback we receive inattempting to maintain or change ourenvironment
 
Over the next two years, infants develop awide range of emotional expressions andfeelings.
 
Social smiling
(4-6 wks)
 
Anger, surprise, sadness
(3-4 mos)
 
Fear
(5-7 mos)
 
Shame and shyness
(6-8 mos)
 
Contempt and guilt
(24 mos)
Temperament
: Individual differences inattention, arousal and reactivity to newsituations. These differences appear early, arerelatively stable and long-lasting, and areinfluenced in large part by genetic factors
 
Easy babies (40%)
happy, cheerful, hadregular sleeping and eating habits andadapt quickly to new situations
 
Slow-to-warm-up babies (15%)
withdrawn, moody, take longer to adaptto new situations
 
 
Difficult babies (10%)
fussy, fearful,more intense with their reactions
 
 
No-single-category babies (35%)
variety of traits and could not be classifiedinto one of the three categories
 Attachment
: A close fundamental emotionalbond that develops between the infant and his orher parents or caregiver
 Separation Anxiety
: Infant’s distress – asindicated by loud protests, crying and agitation-whenever the infant’s parents temporarily leave
Secure attachment
Characteristics of infants who use their parent asa safe home base from which they can wander off and explore their environments
Insecure attachment
Characteristic of infants who avoid or showambivalence or resistance toward their parent orcaregiver.
 
 
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 3
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Refers to how a person perceives, thinks andgains understanding of his/her world through theinteraction and influence of genetic and learnedfactors
Jean PiagetTheory of Cognitive Development
Each stage is more advanced than the precedingstage because it involves new reasoning andthinking abilities
Each person may go through the stages atdifferent rates
ASSIMILATION:
A mental process that occurswhen a child incorporates new knowledge intoexisting knowledge.
ACCOMODATION:
A mental process that occurswhen a child adjusts to new information.Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to about age 2
Infants interact with and learn about theirenvironments by relating their sensoryexperiences to motor actions
OBJECT PERMANENCE
: at around 9 months,understanding that objects or events continue toexist even if they can no longer be heard,touched or seenPre-operational Stage
About 2 to 7 years old
Children learn to use symbols to solve simpleproblems and to think or talk about things thatare not present
EGOCENTRIC THINKING
: refers to seeing andthinking of the world only from your ownviewpoint and having difficulty appreciatingsomeone else’s viewpointConcrete Operational Stage
About 7 to 11 years
Children can perform a number of logical mentaloperations on concrete objects (ones that arephysically present)
CONSERVATION
: refers to the fact that eventhough the shape of some object or substance ischanged, the total amount remains the same
CLASSIFICATION
Grouping pieces according to a single categoryFormal Operational Stage
About 12 years old through adulthood
Adolescents and adults develop the ability tothink about and solve abstract problems in alogical mannerKey points:
1.
 
Children gradually develop reasoningabilities through the active process of assimilation and accommodation.2.
 
Children are naturally curious and self-motivated to explore their worlds anddevelop numerous cognitive skills.3.
 
Children acquire different kinds of thinkingand reasoning abilities as they go throughdifferent stages of cognitive development.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
 
 
Refers to how a person develops a sense of self or self-identity, develops relationshipswith others, and develops the kind of socialskills important in personal interactions
Sigmund FreudPsychosexual Stages
Five developmental periods during which theindividual seeks pleasure from different areas of the body that are associated with sexual feelings.
Emphasized that the child’s first five years weremost important to social and personalitydevelopment
Presence of conflict between the parent and thechild: Child wants immediate gratification whileparent places restrictions
Fixation:
an arrest in development that canaffect adult personality
 
ORAL STAGE
Period: early infancy- first 18 months
Pleasure-seeking center: Mouth
Sucking, chewing, biting
Oral fixation may be manifested by gossiping ortalking too much, overeating, smoking andalcoholism. Also, excessive childish dependenceon others.

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