The human body has a tremendous capacity to adapt
to physical stress. We tend to think of “stress” in the
context of its negative effect on our emotional well-
being, but physical stress, which is simply exercise and
activity, is benecial for our bones, muscles, tendons,
and ligaments, making them stronger and more
functional. This happens because of an internal process
called remodeling. The remodeling process involves
both the breakdown and buildup of tissue. There is a
ne balance between the two, and if breakdown occurs
more rapidly than buildup, an overuse injury occurs.
There are basically two types of injuries: acute injuries and overuse injuries. Acute
injuries are usually the result of a single, traumatic event. Common examples in-
clude wrist fractures, ankle sprains, shoulder dislocations, and hamstring muscle
strain. While overuse injuries are more common in sports than acute injuries, they
are subtle and usually occur over time, making them challenging to diagnose and
treat. They are the result of repetitive micro-trauma to the tendons, bones, and
joints. Common examples include tennis elbow, swimmer’s shoulder, Little League
elbow, runner’s knee, jumper’s knee, Achilles tendinitis, and shin splints.
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