Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
19Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Expert System Notes

Expert System Notes

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,730 |Likes:
Published by Uddalak Banerjee
computer science engineering study material
computer science engineering study material

More info:

Published by: Uddalak Banerjee on Aug 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/06/2013

pdf

text

original

 
13
2
FUNDAMENTALS OF EXPERTSYSTEMS
This chapter introduces the basic concepts of expert systems. The hierarchicalprocess of developing expert systems is presented, as well as the essentialcharacteristics of expert systems are presented. More specific details of theconcepts introduced in this chapter are covered in subsequent chapters.
2.1 EXPERT SYSTEMS PROCESS
This book is organized in the structure of a strategic process for developingsuccessful expert systems. Figure 2.1 presents the hierarchy of topics as theyare presented here and in the subsequent chapters. The strategic process isrecommended for anyone venturing into the technology of expert systemsfrom the standpoint of training, research, or applications. This chapter coversthe basic concepts of expert systems technology. A basic understanding of these concepts is essential to getting the most out of expert systems. Morespecific details of the concepts presented in this chapter are discussed inappropriate sections of the subsequent chapters. Chapter 3 covers problemanalysis. To be effective, the right problems must be selected for expert sys-tems implementation. The principle of ‘‘garbage in, garbage out’’ is also ap-plicable here. Wrong problems lead to incorrect implementation of expertsystems.Chapter 4 covers knowledge engineering. Knowledge acquisition is a crit-ical aspect of the expert systems effort. If the knowledge collected is garbage,the best that can be expected from a system is garbage. Chapter 5 presentsprobabilistic and fuzzy reasoning. Chapter 6 presents fuzzy systems tech-niques for handling uncertainty in expert systems. Chapter 7 presents neuralnetworks.Chapter 8 covers neural-fuzzy networks. Chapter 9 presents the techniqueof evolutionary computing. Chapter 10 presents an application to manufac-turing. Chapter 11 presents an application to forecasting.
 
14
FUNDAMENTALS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS
BACKGROUNDCONCEPTSPROBLEM SELECTIONKNOWLEDGE ACQUISITIONKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATIONTOOL SELECTIONDEVELOPMENT PROCESSTESTING, VERIFICATION, VALIDATIONIMPLEMENTATION, INTEGRATIONTime
       T     a     s       k     s
MAINTENANCE
Figure 2.1.
Hierarchy of expert systems development process.
2.2 EXPERT SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS
By definition, an expert system is a computer program that simulates thethought process of a human expert to solve complex decision problems in aspecific domain. This chapter addresses the characteristics of expert systemsthat make them different from conventional programming and traditional de-cision support tools. The growth of expert systems is expected to continuefor several years. With the continuing growth, many new and exciting appli-cations will emerge. An expert system operates as an interactive system thatresponds to questions, asks for clarification, makes recommendations, andgenerally aids the decision-making process. Expert systems provide expertadvice and guidance in a wide variety of activities, from computer diagnosisto delicate medical surgery.Various definitions of expert systems have been offered by several authors.A general definition that is representative of the intended functions of expertsystems is:
An
expert system
is an interactive computer-based decision tool thatuses both facts and heuristics to solve difficult decision problems based onknowledge acquired from an expert.
 
2.2 EXPERT SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS
15
An expert system may be viewed as a computer simulation of a humanexpert. Expert systems are an emerging technology with many areas for po-tential applications. Past applications range from MYCIN, used in the medicalfield to diagnose infectious blood diseases, to XCON, used to configure com-puter systems. These expert systems have proven to be quite successful. Mostapplications of expert systems will fall into one of the following categories:
Interpreting and identifying
Predicting
Diagnosing
Designing
Planning
Monitoring
Debugging and testing
Instructing and training
ControllingApplications that are computational or deterministic in nature are not goodcandidates for expert systems. Traditional decision support systems such asspreadsheets are very mechanistic in the way they solve problems. They op-erate under mathematical and Boolean operators in their execution and arriveat one and only one static solution for a given set of data. Calculation-intensive applications with very exacting requirements are better handled bytraditional decision support tools or conventional programming. The best ap-plication candidates for expert systems are those dealing with expert heuristicsfor solving problems. Conventional computer programs are based on factualknowledge, an indisputable strength of computers. Humans, by contrast, solveproblems on the basis of a mixture of factual and heuristic knowledge. Heu-ristic knowledge, composed of intuition, judgment, and logical inferences, isan indisputable strength of humans. Successful expert systems will be thosethat combine facts and heuristics and thus merge human knowledge withcomputer power in solving problems. To be effective, an expert system mustfocus on a particular problem domain, as discussed below.
2.2.1 Domain Specificity
Expert systems are typically very domain specific. For example, a diagnosticexpert system for troubleshooting computers must actually perform all thenecessary data manipulation as a human expert would. The developer of sucha system must limit his or her scope of the system to just what is needed tosolve the target problem. Special tools or programming languages are oftenneeded to accomplish the specific objectives of the system.

Activity (19)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Ajay Singh liked this
Muchiri John Mwangi added this note
Well growing company.
Anil Kapil added this note
gud site
Nida Ali liked this
kpk_73 liked this
Bhavin Shah liked this
Madhur Anand liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->