Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Spanish Verb Tenses

Spanish Verb Tenses

Ratings: (0)|Views: 64|Likes:
Published by Erika Vagay

More info:

Published by: Erika Vagay on Aug 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/25/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Present Indicative of Verbs - Review of Forms
 A.
 
Regular verbs
. To form the present indicative of regular verbs, drop the infinitive ending(
-ar
,
-er
, or
-ir
) and add the endings given below:-ar -er -ir
 (
to speak 
)
 (
to eat 
)
 (
to live
)hablo hablamos como comemos vivo vivimoshablas habláis comes coméis vives vivíshabla hablan come comen vive vivenB.
 
In the above examples, note that the endings for the
-er
and
-ir
verbs are identical
exceptfor the nosotros and vosotros forms
.C.
 
Stem changing verbs
. These verbs are also referred to as “radical changing verbs”; the
word
radical
 
in Spanish means “stem” or “root”. The stem vowel undergoes a change
when it is stressed in the present tense. [These verbs do
not
so change in any other tense
 — 
except for
-ir
verbs, which experience a stem change in the
-ndo
form, in the presentsubjunctive and in the preterit.]1.
 
o
>
ue
(the stem vowel
o
changes to
ue
when stressed)
(
 put to bed 
)acuesto, acuestas, acuesta, acostamos, acostáis,acuestan
(
return, goback 
)vuelvo, vuelves, vuelve, volvemos, volvéis, vuelven
(
sleep
)duermo, duermes, duerme, dormimos, dormís,duermen2.
 
Similar verbs: 
 (
remember 
), 
 (
eat lunch
), 
 (
bet 
),
 (
count, relate
), 
 (
cost 
), 
 (
 find 
), 
 (
rain
), 
 (
die
),
 (
move
), 
 (
smell
), 
 (
be able
), 
 (
try, prove
), 
 (
remember 
), 
 (
beg
), 
 (
sound 
), 
 (
dream
), 
 (
 fly
).3.
 
e
>
ie
(the stem vowel
e
changes to
ie
when stressed):
(
begin
) empiezo, empiezas, empieza, empezamos, empezáis, empiezan
(
want 
) quiero, quieres, quiere, queremos, queréis, quieren
(
 feel
) siento, sientes, siente, sentimos, sentís, sienten4.
 
Similar verbs: 
 (
notice
), 
 (
cross
), 
 (
heat 
), 
 (
close
), 
 (
begin
), 
 (
convert 
), 
 (
defend 
), 
 (
awaken
), 
 (
amuse
), 
 (
begin
), 
 (
govern
), 
 (
injure
),
 
 (
think 
), 
 (
lose
) 
 (
want 
), 
 (
 feel
,
regret 
), 
 (
stumble
).5.
 
e
>
i
(the stem vowel
e
changes to
i
when stressed;
-ir
verbs only):
(
request, ask for 
) pido, pides, pide, pedimos, pedís, piden6.
 
Similar verbs: 
 (
compete
), 
 (
get 
), 
 (
correct 
), 
 (
melt 
), 
 (
 fire, say goodbye
), 
 (
elect 
), 
 (
measure
), 
 (
laugh
),
 (
serve
), 
 (
 follow, continue
), 
 (
smile
), 
 (
repeat 
), 
 (
dress
).7.
 
u
>
ue
(the stem vowel
u
changes to
ue
when stressed [in the verb 
 only]):
(
 play
[a game or sport]) juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, jugáis, jueganD.
 
Verbs with an irregular first person singular (yo) form
. [Note that all of these verbswill also have special forms for the present subjunctive, since present subjunctive formsare based on the first person singular.]1.
 
c
>
zc
in the
yo
form:
(
know, be aquainted with
[peopleor places])conozco, conoces, conoce, conocemos,conocéis, conocen2.
 
This is the usual pattern for verbs whose infinitive ends in
-cer
or
-cir
: 
 (
happen
), 
 (
thank 
), 
 (
dawn
), 
 (
appear 
), 
 (
drive, conduct 
), 
 (grow), 
 (
get thin
), 
 (
get rich
),
 (
get older 
), 
 (
establish
), 
(
deserve
), 
 (
beborn
), 
 (
obey
), 
 (
offer 
), 
 (
suffer 
), 
 (
seem
),
 (
remain
), 
 (
 produce
), 
 (
reduce
), and 
 (
translate
).3.
 
appearance of 
g
in the
yo
form:
(
 fall
) caigo, caes, cae, caemos, caéis, caen
(
bring
) traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen
(
day, tell
) *digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen
(
do, make
) hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacéis, hacen
(put, set 
) pongo, pones, pone, ponemos, ponéis, ponen
(
leave, go out 
) salgo, sales, sale, salimos, salís, salen
(
have
) *tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen
(
be worth
) valgo, vales, vale, valemos, valéis, valen
(
come
) *vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
 
4.
 
*These are also stem changing verbs.5.
 
other types of 
yo
form changes:
(
 fit 
[in something]) quepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabéis, caben
(
give
) doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan
(
know
[facts]) sé, sabes, sabe, sabemos, sabéis, saben
(
see
) veo, ves, ve, vemos, veis, venE.
 
Verbs which add an accent over a final weak vowel
. The vowels
i
and
u
 
are “weak vowels” in contrast to the “strong vowels”
a
,
e
, and
o
. When they come in contact withany other vowel they normally form a diphthong; the addition of a written accent keepsthis diphthonization from occurring. Such accents are necessary for some verbs becausethe
i
and
u
are the stem vowels:
continúo, continúas, continúa, continuamos, continuáis, continúan
(“
 I continue, you continue
”, etc. Note that the unaccented words
continuoand continua
, are adjectives meaning “continuous”.)
 
envío, envías, envía, enviamos, enviáis, envían
(“
 I send, you send 
”, etc.)
 F.
 
Similar verbs: 
 (
act 
), 
 (
bring about 
), 
 (
graduate
), 
 (
trust 
),
 (
raise, bring up
), 
 (
ski
), 
 (
empty
).G.
 
With most other verbs the
i
and
u
are not stem vowels, and thus form diphthongs:
copio, copias, copia, copiamos, copiamos, copiáis, copiamos
(forms of the verb “
to copy
”; the
i
is not stressed)H.
 
Similar verbs: 
 (
announce
), 
 (
appreciate
), 
 (
associate
),
 (
change
), 
 (
divorce
), 
 (
dirty
), 
 (
study
), 
 (
initiate
), 
 (
clean
), 
 (
negociate
), 
 (
renounce
).I.
 
Verbs like 
.Verbs whose infinitive ends in
-uir
(but not
-guir
) insert a
y
in present
tense endings whenever the ending does not contain the sound “
i
”, that is, in all forms
except for
nosotros
and
vosotros
.
(
 flee
) huyo, huyes, huye, huimos, huís, huyenJ.
 
Verbs conjugated like 
 (
construct 
), 
,(
contribute
), 
, (
diminish
), 
 (
include
), 
 (
influence
).K.
 
Irregular verbs
. The following verbs are completely irregular (usually because of theway they evolved from Latin) or display characteristics so rare as to be considered
“irregular” for our purposes.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->