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Chap1-Crystal Structure Small

Chap1-Crystal Structure Small

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Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
1
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Solid State Physics
Solid State Physics
Text: Introduction to Solid State
Physics
by Charles Kittel
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Chapter 1. Crystal Structure
Chapter 1. Crystal Structure
Periodic array of atoms
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Lattice: regular periodic arrangement of points in
spaceLattice sites:
( :정수 )
: Basis vector ( primitive vectors )
3
3
2
2
1
1
a
u
a
u
a
u
u
v
v
v
r
+
+
=
3
2
1
,
,
u
u
u
3
2
1
,
,
a
a
a
v
v
v
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Translational Symmetry:
Basis vectors
Primitive lattice translation vector
: 정수
원자 구조가
만큼 이동해도 변화 없음
crystal(lattice) translation vector :
3
2
1
,
,
a
a
a
v
v
v
3
3
2
2
1
1
a
n
a
n
a
n
T
v
v
v
v
+
+
=
3
2
1
,
,
n
n
n
T
v
T
v
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
2
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Crystal structure = lattice + basis
Crystal structure = lattice + basis
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Primitive unit cell:
A volume of space that, when translated through all the vectors in a Bravais
lattice, just fills all of space without either overlapping itself or leaving voids.
인 체적.
There are various possible choices of primitive unit cell.
3
3
2
2
1
1
a
x
a
x
a
x
v
v
v
v
+
+
=
γ
1
,
,
0
3
2
1
x
x
x
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Wigner-seitz primitive cell:
Primitive unit cell 중에서 가장 기본이 되는 것.
정해진 한 점에서 가장 가까운lattice sites들을 잇는vector를 수직 이등분한
선으로 둘러싸인cell.
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Bravais lattice
Crystal 구조를 나누는 기본 단위의 lattice
14(3차원) 5(2차원)
Bravais lattice
Crystal 구조를 나누는 기본 단위의 lattice
14(3차원) 5(2차원)
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
3
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
°
90
,
,
,
α
b
a
b
a
v
v
v
v
Two-dimensional lattice
1. Oblique lattice
2. Special lattice (4)

Hexagonal lattice
Square lattice
Rectangular lattice
Centered rectangular lattice

Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Crystal structure: 3차원에서 crystal의 기본 구조 7개와 14 Bravaus lattices
Crystal structure: 3차원에서 crystal의 기본 구조 7개와 14 Bravaus lattices
Triclinic
(
) 1가지
Monoclinic
(
) 2가지
Orthorhombic (
) 4가지
Tetragonal
(
) 2가지
Cubic
(
) 3가지
Trigonal
(
) 1가지
Hexagonal
(
) 1가지
γ
β
α
,
c
b
a
β
γ
α
°
=
=
90
,
c
b
a
°
=
=
=
90
,
γ
β
α
c
b
a
°
=
=
=
=
90
,
γ
β
α
c
b
a
°
=
=
=
=
=
90
,
γ
β
α
c
b
a
°
°
<
=
=
=
=
90
,
120
,
γ
β
α
c
b
a
°
=
°
=
=
=
120
,
90
,
γ
β
α
c
b
a
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
3
a
3
a
3
a
3
a
3
2
1a
3
4
1a
a
a
23
a
2
1
Simple
Body-centered

Face-centered
Volume(conventional cell)
Lattice points per cell

1
2
4
Volume of primitive cell
No. of nearest neighbors
6
8

12
Nearest neighbor distance
Packing fraction

0.524
0.68
0.740
Characteristics of Cubic Lattices
Characteristics of Cubic Lattices
Solid State Physics by Heesang Kim at SSU-2007
Simple cubic lattice (sc)
Simple cubic lattice (sc)
z
a
a
y
a
a
x
a
a
ˆ
,
ˆ
,
ˆ
3
2
1
=
=
=
v
v
v

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