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Energy Sources and How We Utilse Them

Energy Sources and How We Utilse Them

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Published by Ben
Different sources of energy and how we use them
Different sources of energy and how we use them

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Published by: Ben on Aug 03, 2010
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10/25/2012

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INTRODUCTION
World Energy Supply, are a combination of resources by which various nations of the world use to meettheir everyday energy needs. Energy happens to be the basis of industrial civilization; without energy,modern life would cease to exist. During the 1970s the world began a painful adjustment to thevulnerability of energy supplies. In the long run, conserving energy resources may provide the timeneeded to develop new sources of energy, such as hydrogen fuel cells, or to further develop alternativeenergy sources, such as solar energy and wind energy. While this development occurs, however, theworld will continue to be vulnerable to disruptions in the supply of oil, which, after World War II (1939-1945), became the most favoured energy source.CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENERGY SOURCE.
 
Ability to give useful energy
 
Easy to transport, store, and use
 
Gives a steady flow of energy for a long time
PE
TROL
E
UM
Petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas are found in commercial quantities in sedimentary basinsin more than 50 countries in all parts of the world. The largest deposits are in the Middle East, whichcontains more than half the known oil reserves and almost one-third of the known natural-gas reserves.The United States contains only about 2% of the known oil reserves and 3% of the known natural-gasreserves.This form of energy is the most widely used source of energy since after it was discovered in 1857.Petroleum, or crude oil, naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquid composed of various organicchemicals. It is found in large quantities below the surface of Earth and is used as a fuel and as a rawmaterial in the chemical industry. Modern industrial societies use it primarily to achieve a degree of 
 
mobility on land, at sea, and in the air, that was barely imaginable less than 100 years ago. In addition, petroleum and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of medicines and fertilizers, foodstuffs, plastics, building materials, paints, and cloth and to generate electricity.
G
E
O-TH
E
RMAL
E
N
E
GY
 
Geothermal energy, , is based on the fact that the earth is hotter the deeper one drills below the surface.Water and steam circulating through deep hot rocks, if brought to the surface, can be used to drive aturbine to produce electricity or can be piped through buildings as heat. Some geothermal energy systemsuse naturally occurring supplies of geothermal water and steam, whereas other systems pump water downto the deep hot rocks. Although theoretically limitless, in most habitable areas of the world thissubterranean energy source lies so deep that drilling holes to tap it is very expensive.This form of energy is mainly applied in generating of electricity, geothermal water could be used directlyin spas (balneology), to heat greenhouses (agriculture), and to speed the growth of fish and prawns(aquaculture). The heat from geothermal water is used for industrial processes and for space heating inhomes and other buildings. People in over 35 countries have developed geothermal water for such purposes.
 
COAL
Coal is a general term for a wide variety of solid materials that are high in carbon content. Most coal is burned by electric utility companies to produce steam to turn their generators. Some coal is used infactories to provide heat for buildings and industrial processes. A special, high-quality coal is turned intometallurgical coke for use in making steel.86% of the coal used in the United States is burned by electric power plants to produce electricity. When burned, coal generates energy in the form of heat. In a power plant that uses coal as fuel, this heatconverts water into steam, which is pressurized to spin the shaft of a turbine. This spinning shaft drives agenerator that converts the mechanical energy of the rotation into electric power.Coal is also used in the steel industry. The steel industry uses coal by first heating it and converting it intocoke, a hard substance consisting of nearly pure carbon. The coke is combined with iron ore andlimestone. Then the mixture is heated to produce iron. Other industries use different coal gases given off during the coke-forming process to make fertilizers, solvents, medicine, pesticides, and other products.Fuel companies convert coal into easily transportable gas or liquid fuels. Coal-based vapor fuels are produced through the process of 
 gasification.
Gasification may be accomplished either at the site of thecoalmine or in processing plants. In processing plants, the coal is heated in the presence of steam andoxygen to produce
 synthesis gas
, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane used directly asfuel or refined into cleaner-burning gas.On-site gasification is accomplished by controlled, incomplete burning of an underground coal bed whileadding air and steam. To do this, workers ignite the coal bed, pump air and steam underground into the burning coal, and then pump the resulting gases from the ground. Once the gases are withdrawn, they may be burned to produce heat or generate electricity. Or they may be used in synthetic gases to producechemicals or to help create liquid fuels.
 Liquefaction
processes convert coal into a liquid fuel that has a composition similar to that of crude petroleum. Coal can be liquefied either by direct or indirect processes. However, because coal is a

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