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Rhce Notes

Rhce Notes

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Published by: Mathivanan on Aug 03, 2010
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06/18/2013

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 1
RED
 
HAT
 
ENTERPRISE
 
LINUX
 
4.0
 
ES
 
Introduction:
Unix is the first Operating system in the world, developed by Kem Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1969 atBell Lab by AT&T CompanyIBM : AIXSGI : IRIXHP : HPSun : SolarisFSF:Free software foundation organization, they start a project by name GNU. The mail aim of thisproject is to develop such a O.S that can run on any platform.In 1991, a student Linus Torvalds developed a kernel named Linus’s Kernel plus GNU application calledLinux O.SLinux is a open source technology.Different companies that provide Linux in Market are Redhat, SuSe, Mandrake, Turbo, Knoppix etc.
Features and Advantage:
Features:a.
 
Linux is the fastest Operating system in the world. It runs 2 to 3 times fast than windows O.Sb.
 
Linux is the very secured O.S because there is no any problem of virus.c.
 
Linux file format is text format and windows file format is binary format.d.
 
Linux is very reliable O.S because kernel of linux is very stable as compare to windows kernel notcrashed easily.e.
 
Kernel of linux is very small, it can be stored in floppyf.
 
Linux uses the x-Window system which is advanced network windowing system. Using this systemwe can display output of any workstation monitor attached in the network
Advantages of Linux:
a.
 
Virus Proofb.
 
Crash Proofc.
 
Economicald.
 
Multiuser, multi desktop and multi tasking
Mode of Login
There are two mode of login1.
 
Text Mode (Alt+ctrl+F1)2.
 
Graphical Mode (Alt+Ctrl+F7)In case of Text ModeStation2 Login : rootPassword : redhat[root@station2~]#to switch from one text mode to anotherAlt+Ctrl+F1 to Alt+Ctrl+F6In case of Graphical ModeCtrl+Alt+F7
Common Command
Some of the Common system command are as follow:1. Date : to display date and time2. Cal : to display the calendar3. Cal 11 2006 : display the calendar of Month 11 and year 20064. Clear : To clear the screen
 
 2
5. ls : to list directory contentscolor identificationblue : DirectoriesWhite : FilesGreen : Executable filesRed ; Zip files, rpm, tar fileDifferent switches used with “ls” commandls –l or ll : used for long listing including file and directory permission(-) : file(d) : Directory(l) : Symbolic linkls –a : shows all hidden files and directory. Any file followed by (.) is hidden filels –al : show all hidden files and directory with long listing or whole descriptionls –d : shows all the directory6. pwd: Print working directory7. who am I : display the information of current terminal8. who : display all the terminal in a network9. history : it shows all the command your have used.By default history stores last 1000 command which u have run. If u want to change# vi /etc/profileHIST SIZE =10Save and exit# history –c ( to clear all the previous command reside in history)
Creating file and Directory:a.
 
Creating file:
The ‘cat’ command is used to create a fileSyntax:# cat > filenameexample:# cat > abc.txt(Ctrl +D) is used to save the file.
b.
 
View the content of file
Syntax:# cat filenameExample:#cat abc.txt#cat –b abc.txt
c.
 
Creating Directory
The ‘mkdir’ command is used to create directorySyntax:Mkdir [directory_name]Example:# mkdir raj
 
 3
Option used:cd : To change directorycd .. : To come out from directorycd : to jump to root directorycd - : to jump to previous directory
Deleting Files and directory:
Syntax:For file:rm <filename>example:rm abc.txtfor directorysyntax:rmdir <directory_name>Note: Only empty directory will be deleted)If we want to delete the tree structure of directory then we need to use the following commandSyntax:rm –rf <directory_name>wherer = recursivelyf= forcein order to remove non empty directorySyntax:rm –r <directory>example;rm –r rajthis will remove directory step by step ,first remove sub directory and then finally main directory.
Another method of creating file :
Touch : this command is used to create a blank file with size zero.# touch <filename>Example:#touch abc
Copying File and Directory:
a.
 
Copy file:Syntax:# cp [source]filename [destination]b.
 
Copy directory#cp –r [source]directory [destination]to copy a directory into another directory recursivelyc.
 
cp –rf [source]directory [destination]to copy a directory forcefullysyntax used for copy file or directory:cp [option] file destinationoption:-I : interactive : ask before overwriting file-r : Recursive

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