Heat Exchanger General
Many types of heat exchanger are employed in such varied installations as steam power plants, chemical processing plants, building heating, air conditioning, refrigeration systems,and mobile power plants for automotive, marine, and aerospace vehicles. The principal typesof equipment employed in these applications are reviewed and illustrate the problems withwhich is concerned and to clarify the nomenclature.In almost any chemical, electronic, or mechanical system, heat must be transferred fromone place to another or from one fluid to another. Heat exchangers are used to transfer heatfrom one fluid to another. A basic understanding of the mechanical components of a heatexchanger is important to understanding how they function and operateA heat exchanger is a component that allows the transfer of heat from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid. Reasons for heat transfer include the following:1. To heat a cooler fluid by means of a hotter fluid2. To reduce the temperature of a hot fluid by means of a cooler fluid3. To boil a liquid by means of a hotter fluid4. To condense a gaseous fluid by means of a cooler fluid5. To boil a liquid while condensing a hotter gaseous fluidRegardless of the function the heat exchanger fulfills, in order to transfer heat the fluidsinvolved must be at different temperatures and they must come into thermal contact. Heat canflow only from the hotter to the cooler fluid.In a heat exchanger there is no direct contact between the two fluids. The heat is transferredfrom the hot fluid to the metal isolating the two fluids and then to the cooler fluid.
Heat exchangers are found in most chemical, electrical or mechanical systems. They serveas the system's means of gaining or rejecting heat. Some of the more common applications arefound in heating, electronic equipment, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems,radiators on internal combustion engines, boilers, condensers, and as preheaters or coolers influid systems. The associated webages will review some specific heat exchanger applications.The intent is to provide several specific examples of how each heat exchanger functions in asystem, not to cover every possible applicaton.
Fluid Flow Arrangement
Most heat exchangers may be classified as being in one of several categories on the basis of the configuration of the fluid flow paths through the heat exchanger. The four most commontypes of flow path configuration are parallel flow, counter flow, single-pass crossflow,multippass crossflow. In
units the two fluid streams enter together at one end, flow through in the same direction, and leave together at the other end where as in
units the two fluid streams move in opposite directions. In
units one fluid moves through the heat transfer matrix at right angles tothe flow path of the other fluid. In
units one fluid stream shuttles back and forth across the flow path of the other fluid stream, usually giving a crossflow1