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Using antigen-antibody interaction for diagnosis and other applications

Using antigen-antibody interaction for diagnosis and other applications

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Published by: duskuie on Aug 03, 2010
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10/25/2012

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Bi5 Unified Document: Group 4
 Audio-Visual Presentation
Unified Document
Group 4:
³L
ugue Kayo!´
T
opic:
³U 
 sing antibody-antigen interaction for diagnostics and other purposes´
Members and Fields of Study:
Ma
rk Louie Lugue ± 
cientific Interaction of Antigens and Antibodies Interaction
 sed in Diagnostics
J
a
mes Pe Lim ± 
 Pros and Cons of this Biotechnology
Ri
a
Iestin Corr 
al
± 
 Antibody and Antigen Descriptions
Hessen Demi
l
J
a
o ± 
 Interaction
 sed in Diagnostics
Joh
a
nn Erin de Guzm
a
n ± 
 Interaction
 sed in diagnosticsOther Applications of this Interaction
Leon
a
rdo
Ma
ri
a
De
l
Ros
a
rio ± 
 Pros and Cons of this Biotechnology
F
ay
e H
a
nn
a
h Ang ± 
 Antibody and Antigen Descriptions
 Nikk 
a
G
a
rperio ± 
cientific Interaction of Antigens and AntibodiesOther Apllications of this Interaction
P
a
trick D
a
cud
a
o ± 
cientific Interaction of Antigens and Antibodies
 
Bi5 Unified Document: Group 4
T
able of Contents 
Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................ 3
Antigen
................................................................................................................................................ 3
Antibod
y
.............................................................................................................................................. 3
S
umm
a
y
............................................................................................................................................. 3
Re
la
tionships
........................................................................................................................................... 4
Antigen-Antibod
y
Inter 
a
ction
.............................................................................................................. 4
S
umm
a
y
............................................................................................................................................. 4
App
l
ic
a
tions
............................................................................................................................................ 4
Di
a
gnostic Purposes
............................................................................................................................. 4
S
epsis Di
a
gnosis Amp
l
ified b
y
Who
l
e B
l
ood Chemi
l
uminescence
.................................................. 4
Liver D
a
m
a
ge Di
a
gnosis
.................................................................................................................. 5
Other App
l
ic
a
tions
............................................................................................................................... 5
S
tud
y
of Evo
l
ution
........................................................................................................................... 5
P
a
ssive Immunit
y
............................................................................................................................. 5
 
Bi5 Unified Document: Group 4
Descriptions
Antigen
Antibodies
a
re g
a
mm
a
g
l
obu
l
in proteins th
a
t
a
re found in b
l
ood or other bodi
ly
l
uids of vertebr 
a
tes,
a
nd
a
re used b
y
the immune s
y
stem to identif 
y
 
a
nd neutr 
al
ize foreign objects, such
a
s b
a
cteri
a
 
a
nd viruses.
1
The
y
 
a
ret
y
 pic
ally
m
a
de of b
a
sic structur 
al
units²e
a
ch with two
la
rge he
a
v
y
ch
a
ins
a
nd two sm
all
 
l
ight ch
a
ins²to form, for ex
a
mp
l
e, monomers with one unit, dimers with two units or pent
a
mers with five units. Antibodies
a
re produced b
y
 
a
 kind of white b
l
ood ce
ll
c
all
ed
a
p
la
sm
a
ce
ll
. There
a
re sever 
al
different t
y
 pes of 
a
ntibod
y
he
a
v
y
ch
a
ins,
a
nd sever 
al
 different kinds of 
a
ntibodies, which
a
re grouped into different isot
y
 pes b
a
sed on which he
a
v
y
ch
a
in the
y
possess.
2
 This huge diversit
y
of 
a
ntibodies
all
ows the immune s
y
stem to recognize
a
n equ
ally
wide v
a
riet
y
of 
a
ntigens. Antibodies c
a
n
al
so neutr 
al
ize t
a
rgets direct
ly
b
y
, for ex
a
mp
l
e, binding to
a
p
a
rt of 
a
p
a
thogen th
a
t it needsto c
a
use
a
n infection.
3
 Antibodies
a
re he
a
v
y
(~150 kD
a)
proteins. The
y
h
a
ve sug
a
r ch
a
ins
a
dded to some of their 
a
mino
a
cidresidues.
4
In other words,
a
ntibodies
a
re g
ly
coproteins. The b
a
sic function
al
unit of e
a
ch
a
ntibod
y
is
a
nimmunog
l
obu
l
in (Ig
)
monomer (cont
a
ining on
ly
one Ig unit
);
secreted
a
ntibodies c
a
n
al
so be dimeric with two Igunits
a
s with IgA, tetr 
a
meric with four Ig units
l
ike te
l
eost fish Ig
M
, or pent
a
meric with five Ig units,
l
ikem
a
mm
al
i
a
n Ig
M
.
5
 Hum
a
ns
a
nd higher prim
a
tes
al
so produce ³n
a
tur 
al
 
a
ntibodies´ which
a
re present in serum before vir 
al
 infection. N
a
tur 
al
 
a
ntibodies h
a
ve been defined
a
s
a
ntibodies th
a
t
a
re produced without
a
n
y
previous infection,v
a
ccin
a
tion, other foreign
a
ntigen exposure or p
a
ssive immuniz
a
tion.
6
 
Antibody
An
a
ntigen is
a
mo
l
ecu
l
e th
a
t stimu
la
tes
a
response from the immune s
y
stem, such
a
s b
a
cteri
a
, viruses,foods, toxins,
a
nd foreign ce
ll
s. The word origin
a
ted from the notion th
a
t
a
ntigens c
a
n stimu
la
te
a
ntibod
y
 gener 
a
tion.
7
 The b
a
sis of the
a
d
a
 ptive immune s
y
stem
l
ies in the c
a
 p
a
cit
y
of immune ce
ll
s to distinguish between proteins produced b
y
the bod
y'
s own ce
ll
s (those of the origin
al
org
a
nism
)
,
a
nd proteins produced b
y
inv
a
ders or ce
ll
s under contro
l
of 
a
virus (wh
a
t is not recognized
a
s the origin
al
org
a
nism
)
. The immune s
y
stem is one of gre
a
tcomp
l
exit
y
,
a
d
a
 pt
a
 bi
l
it
y
,
a
nd coordin
a
tion. An
a
ntigen c
a
n be innumer 
a
 b
l
e different kinds of foreign inv
a
ders. Yet,the immune s
y
stem c
a
n recognize these mi
ll
ions of different
a
ntigens
a
nd neutr 
al
ize or destro
y
them, whi
l
e
a
t thes
a
me time
all
owing he
l
 pfu
l
, s
y
mbiotic b
a
cteri
a
, such
a
s E. co
l
i, to become est
a
 b
l
ished within the hum
a
n bod
y
. Eventhough
all
the v
a
rious white b
l
ood ce
ll
t
y
 pes h
a
ve
a
different responsibi
l
it
y
, the
y
 
all
function together in therecognizing,
a
tt
a
cking,
a
nd destro
y
ing of b
a
cteri
a
, viruses, c
a
ncer ce
ll
s,
a
nd
all
subst
a
nces seen foreign.
8
 
Summary
9
 
Antigen Antibody
 
A protein mo
l
ecu
l
e (immunog
l
obu
l
in
)
th
a
t h
a
sone or more combining sites c
all
ed p
a
a
topes.
 
A gener 
al
term for 
a
mo
l
ecu
l
e th
a
t m
ay
trigger 
a
ntibod
y
gener 
a
tion, with potenti
ally
m
a
n
y
 different surf 
a
ce fe
a
tures.
 
Antigens
a
re m
a
cromo
l
ecu
l
es with one or more
a
ntigenic determin
a
nts.
 
Antigenic determin
a
nts or epitopes
a
re thosesurf 
a
ce fe
a
tures of the
a
ntigen th
a
t
a
recomp
l
ement
a
y
to
a
n
a
ntibodies combining site.
 
Without
a
ntigen, there is no immunit
y
for the
a
cquired immune s
y
stem to respond to
a
nd
l
e
a
rn.
 
A
l
so c
all
ed immunogens bec
a
use the
y
resu
l
t in
a
n immune response

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