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Infection Control Policies and Procedures

Infection Control Policies and Procedures

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Published by Kelly J Wilson
Overview of infection control policies and procedure of an health system and explanation of disease transmision, sterile processess in health care environment, associated diseases related to modes of transmision and their protocals for dealing with such a disease in a health care setting.

Explanation of procedure in dealing with blood contaminates and spills from a nursing perspective.

HLTIN301
Overview of infection control policies and procedure of an health system and explanation of disease transmision, sterile processess in health care environment, associated diseases related to modes of transmision and their protocals for dealing with such a disease in a health care setting.

Explanation of procedure in dealing with blood contaminates and spills from a nursing perspective.

HLTIN301

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Published by: Kelly J Wilson on Aug 03, 2010
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Kelly J Wilson Assessment 1 HLTIN301A4140880602 Infection Control Policies and Procedures.
Infection control in a health care organisation is the prevention of the spread of microorganisms from patient to patient, patient to staff and staff member to patient.All heath care organisations should have a nominated person or team to ensure that there areinfection control policies and procedures in place. Every employee whom has contact withpatients or items used in the care of patients is obligated to adhere to the infection controlpolicies and procedure of that organisation.In many health care facilities of the country sick people are treated or cared for inclaustrophobic spaces. Resulting in many microorganisms becoming present. Patients willcome into contact with numerous members of the staff who can potentially spread themicroorganisms and infections between the patients. The large quantities of wastecontaminated with blood and body substances which is handled and processed within thehealth care setting increases the risk of infection.There are some legislations involved with infection control to help make infection control work,these legislations are; Health Practitioners (Professional Standards) Act 1999, Workplace Healthand Safety Act 1989, Quarantine Act 1908, Nursing Act 1992, Health Service Act 1992 andHealth Rights Commission Act 1992.Majority of infections in health care organisations are caused by microorganisms which in alarge part can be spread on hands of people, microorganisms are unable to procreate on clean,dry, inanimate surfaces. Although the environment may occasionally be the source of anoutbreak, the function of cleaning in health care organisations is to remove soil, minimise theoverall amount of microbes and prevent them from spreading to patients and staff.Patients being treated in hospitals generally have compromised immune system and virulentdiseases, it is very important that all health care organisations are kept sanitary through thepractice of sterilization.Sterilization involves a process that completely destroys all forms of microbial life, includingbacteria, viruses and spores. For this to be effective sterilization must forego meticulouscleaning that are mechanical and or manual processes that removes all foreign material fromobjects before going through the sterilization process. Lack of such protocol measures orfailure to follow the rules regarding to protocol by staff may cause nosocomial infections inpatients.To maximize and maintain asepsis an aseptic technique is required, the goal of aseptictechnique is to protect the patient from any infections and to help stop the spread of pathogens. Nurses maintain the proximate care environment, as they provide care for a
 
Kelly J Wilson Assessment 1 HLTIN301A4140880602 Infection Control Policies and Procedures.
diverse range of patients and the risk of contamination from pathogenic microorganisms isincreased.The practice of medical asepsis and standard precautions are to provide the nurse withtechniques for destroying or containing pathogens and to help prevent any contamination toother people and the transmission on inanimate objects.Medical asepsis helps to contain any infectious organisms and to maintain an environment freefrom contamination. The techniques used to maintain medical asepsis include hand washing,gowning and wearing facial masks when needed, as well as separating clean from contaminatedor potentially contaminated materials and providing information to patients about basichygienic practices.The nurse needs to utilise the appropriate hand washing techniques and so too the patient, asthis remains the most important factor in preventing the spread of microorganisms.Common example of medical asepsis involves the steps taken by the nurse to ensure that onlyclean linen is applied to each patients bed. The hands of the nurse are to be washed beforehandling the clean linen, the unused linen cannot be returned once it has entered the patientsroom and it cannot be used for another patients bed either. This linen is considered to besoiled linen and it must be placed in the soiled linen bin.Surgical asepsis is the holistic absence of pathogens in the surgical field; basic principles,procedures and surgical conscience are essential components of surgical asepsis. It is to benoted that the floor, walls and other items within the operating room are not sterile; anythingbrought into the sterile field must be sterilized and packaged to maintain that sterile field.A few examples of surgical asepsis processes could include; non-sterile hats and masks worn byall staff in the operating room to help prevent any hair or respiratory secretions fromcontaminating the sterile field, all potential contaminates to the surgical site are to be removedfrom the patient such as hair follicles near and around the field and thorough washing of theskin with surgical soup. All care is taken, not to contaminate the sterile field with non-sterileitems.Techniques of asepsis can refer to the activities of preparing, creating and maintaining a sterilefield. A nurse needs to ensure that the equipment that is going to be used in the sterile field isin fact sterile. Most items that are needed to perform a task within a sterile field often do notcontain indicators; instead they are clearly marked sterile on the package.
 
Kelly J Wilson Assessment 1 HLTIN301A4140880602 Infection Control Policies and Procedures.
There are three major indicators that the nurse may use to help identify whether the item issterile or not, the three indicators are (1) glass pellet (2) chemical (3) biologic or spore stripindicators.A glass pallet indicator is a small glass tube containing a temperature sensitive pallet thatchanges colour when it is expose to a certain temperature for a specific amount of time.Chemical indicators are made out of paper that is covered with a chemical dye, the dye changescolour when sterilization has occurred. Spore strips are specifically prepared strips containing aknown population of bacteria placed in the centre of the package, after being exposed to thesterilization process these strips are sent to the lab, this ascertains whether or not thesterilization was successful.Work practices that are required for healthcare workers to abide by when coming into contactwith patients are the standard infection control precautions; standard precautions combine themajor features of universal precautions and body substance isolation. Standard precautions arework practices that are necessary for basic level of infection control, standard precautions aremade up of a set of principles designed to minimise exposure to and the transmission of microorganisms. Every patient is a potential infection risk, it is necessary that the applicationsof standard precautions are applied to all patients.Standard precautions may be comprised of:
y
 
Hand washing.
y
 
U
se of personal protective equipment.
y
 
Aseptic practices.
y
 
Appropriate reprocessing of instruments and equipment following use.
y
 
Safe handling and disposal of potential infectious material and
y
 
Environmental control.Body substance isolation protects against the bacterial organisms that may exist in the bodysubstances, this applies in all patient encounters regardless of the diagnosis. The application of gloves for contact with moist body surfaces and areas of non-intact skin, wearing of a facialmask when in contact of an infectious droplet secretions, these measures help prevent thecontamination of both the health care worker and the patient.When patients are suspected to be infected or have a highly transmissible pathogen that cancause an infection, when standard precautions are not enough in preventing an infectionadditional precautions are needed. When the additional precautions are needed, it is used inaddition to the standard precautions.

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