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Reasons for Urinalysis

Reasons for Urinalysis

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Published by: redgina on Aug 03, 2010
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Reasons for Urinalysis
Urinalysis is a laboratory diagnostic procedure performed when ordered by a doctor or another health care professional which involves testing urine for bacteria, proteins, or other moleculesthat can provide information about a patient’s health. Urinalysis is performed as part of routine pregnancy check-ups, hospital admission, and pre-surgery examinations, as well as in caseswhere a urinary tract infection is suspected.
Urine Color 
One of the urinalysis values that is noted on a lab report is the color of the patient's urine. Normal urine is yellow, with concentration increasing the more yellow a sanple is. Somemedications can cause a change in urine color, which can alter the urinalysis values and changethe way urinalysis interpretation is done by a physician or other medical professional.
Urine Clarity
Urine should be very clear in order to be considered normal. Cloudy urine or urine with a highlevel of sediment may be present in cases of urinary tract infection. People who have had bladder surgery may also have cloudy urine due to colonization of bacteria within the bladder. Doctorsrely on these urinalysis values to diagnose infections and other urinary problems.
Urine pH
The pH of urine is another one of the urinalysis values that can help doctors determine if amedical problem exists. Normal urine pH ranges from 5.0 to 9.0. Any urinalysis values outsideof that range can indicate a problem with acidity or alkalinity. If the PH level of the urine is low,the urinalysis values for nitrates can be affected. Low pH can lead to a false negative for nitrites,which means that nitrites won't show up on the urinalysis even if they are present.
 Nitrite levels are also tested with the urinalysis. These values can be elevated when bacteria arefound in the urinary tract. However, urinalysis results for nitrites can be affected by many issues.False negatives can be caused by other infections, lack of available nitrates, and a quick conversion of nitrites to nitrogen. As mentioned above, low pH can also cause a false negative.
Protein is one of the many urinalysis values that can help doctors determine if there is a problemwith the kidneys or the bladder. When the kidneys are damaged, many substances can leak fromthe kidneys into the urine. Since proteins are made of very large molecules, the presence of 
 protein the urine can indicate advancing kidney problems. Elevated protein levels can alsoindicate that a person has eaten a lot of meat recently or that they have a urinary tract infection.
If your urinalysis results indicate that there are casts in the urine, this can indicate several issues.Casts appear when cells collect in the distal tubules and become concretions. The color of thecasts can help doctors determine what problem exists. Red casts indicate nephritic syndrome,white casts indicatekidney infection,and muddy brown casts can indicate renal failure.
Foul-smelling urine is a common symptom of urinary-tract infection. A fruity odor is associatedwith diabetes mellitus, starvation and dehydration, or ketone formation. Other distinctive odorsare present in the urine of patients with maple syrup urine disease or phenylketonuria (PKU).
Amorphous urates
Amorphous crystals appear as aggregates of finely granular material without anydefining shape. Amorphous urates of Na, K, Mg or Ca tend to form in acidic urineand may have a yellow or yellow-brown color. Amorphous phosphates are similar ingeneral appearance, but tend to form in alkaline urine and lack color. Generally, nospecific clinical interpretation can be made for the presence of amorphous crystals.
A high level of glucose and other sugars in the urine (glycosuria) is often a symptom of diabetesmellitus. Glycosuria can also be caused by advanced kidney disease, Cushing's syndrome,impaired tubular reabsorption, shock, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma), or cancer of the pancreas.Milk in the urine is normal if a woman is pregnant, has just given birth, or is breastfeeding. Onthe other hand, rare hereditary metabolic disorders are indicated when urine contains fruit sugar (fructose), milk sugar (galactose), or a simple sugar called pentose.
Test Reference RangeColor Straw - Dark yellowAppearance Clear - HazySpecific Gravity 1.003-1.029pH 4.5-7.8Protein NegativeGlucose NegativeKetones NegativeBilirubin NegativeOccult blood Negative
Leukocyte Esterase NegativeNitrite NegativeUrobilinogen 0.1-1.0 EU/dLWBCs 0-4/hpfRBCs male: 0-3/hpffemale: 0-5/hpfCasts 0-4/lpfBacteria Negative
Blood Chemistry Tests and Haematology Reference Values
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)7-18 mg/dLIncreased in renal disease anddehydration; decreased in liver damage and malnutritionCarbon dioxide (CO2) (includes bicarbonate)23-30 mmol/LUseful to evaluate acid-base balance by measuring totalcarbon dioxide in the blood:Elevated in vomiting and pulmonary disease; decreasedin diabetic acidosis, acute renalfailure, and hyperventilationChloride (Cl)98-106 mEq/LIncreased in dehydration,hyperventilation, andcongestive heart failure;decreased in vomiting,diarrhea,and fever Creatinine0.6-1.2 mg/dLProduced at a constant rate andexcreted by the kidney;increased in kidney diseaseGlucoseFasting: 70-110 mg/dLRandom: 85-125 mg/dLIncreased in diabetes and severeillness; decreased in insulinoverdose or hypoglycemiaPotassium (K)3.5-5 mEq/LIncreased in renal failure,extensive cell damage, andacidosis; decreased in vomiting,diarrhea, and excessadministration of diuretics or IV fluidsSodium (Na)101-111 mEq/L or 135-148 mEq/L (depending ontest)Increased in dehydration anddiabetes insipidus; decreased inoverload of IV fluids, burns,diarrhea, or vomitingAlanine aminotransferase (ALT)10-40 U/LUsed to diagnose and monitotreatment of liver disease and to

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