Reasons for Urinalysis
Urinalysis is a laboratory diagnostic procedure performed when ordered by a doctor or another health care professional which involves testing urine for bacteria, proteins, or other moleculesthat can provide information about a patient’s health. Urinalysis is performed as part of routine pregnancy check-ups, hospital admission, and pre-surgery examinations, as well as in caseswhere a urinary tract infection is suspected.
One of the urinalysis values that is noted on a lab report is the color of the patient's urine. Normal urine is yellow, with concentration increasing the more yellow a sanple is. Somemedications can cause a change in urine color, which can alter the urinalysis values and changethe way urinalysis interpretation is done by a physician or other medical professional.
Urine should be very clear in order to be considered normal. Cloudy urine or urine with a highlevel of sediment may be present in cases of urinary tract infection. People who have had bladder surgery may also have cloudy urine due to colonization of bacteria within the bladder. Doctorsrely on these urinalysis values to diagnose infections and other urinary problems.
The pH of urine is another one of the urinalysis values that can help doctors determine if amedical problem exists. Normal urine pH ranges from 5.0 to 9.0. Any urinalysis values outsideof that range can indicate a problem with acidity or alkalinity. If the PH level of the urine is low,the urinalysis values for nitrates can be affected. Low pH can lead to a false negative for nitrites,which means that nitrites won't show up on the urinalysis even if they are present.
Nitrite levels are also tested with the urinalysis. These values can be elevated when bacteria arefound in the urinary tract. However, urinalysis results for nitrites can be affected by many issues.False negatives can be caused by other infections, lack of available nitrates, and a quick conversion of nitrites to nitrogen. As mentioned above, low pH can also cause a false negative.
Protein is one of the many urinalysis values that can help doctors determine if there is a problemwith the kidneys or the bladder. When the kidneys are damaged, many substances can leak fromthe kidneys into the urine. Since proteins are made of very large molecules, the presence of