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Table Of Contents

1.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
1.5 EXPENDITURE AND CONSUMPTION
1.6 THE CONSUMERS’ VIEWS
1.6.1 When potatoes are consumed
1.7 PRICES PAID TO PRODUCERS
1.8 POTATOES AND THE HEALTH ISSUE
1.8.1 Glycaemic indices
1.9 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
Global Markets for Processed Potato Products
2.2 PROCESSED POTATO PRODUCTS
2.3 HISTORY OF POTATO PROCESSING
2.4 CURRENT DIMENSIONS
2.4.1 Global production and consumption
2.5 POTATO-PROCESSING COMPANIES AND LOCATIONS
2.6.1 Supply chain
2.6.2 Variety requirements
2.7.1 Theory and practice
2.8 POTATO QUALITY
2.8.1 Introduction
2.8.2 Tuber shape, size and dry matter composition
2.8.3 Blemishing diseases and disorders
2.8.4 Sugars and fry colours
2.9 CURRENT ISSUES AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
2.9.1 Acrylamide
2.9.3 Nutritional value
The seed potato market
3.2.1 ‘Conventional’ seed tubers
3.2.2 Mini-tubers
3.2.3 True potato seed
3.3 BARRIERS TO MARKETS IN SEED POTATOES
3.3.1 Quarantine diseases and pests
3.3.2 Non-quarantine diseases and pests
3.3.3 Breeder’s rights
Molecular Taxonomy
4.2 TAXONOMIC BACKGROUND
4.2.1 Wild and cultivated potatoes
4.2.2 The evolutionary framework
4.2.3 Remaining taxonomic problems
4.3 MOLECULAR DATA
Molecular Markers, Maps and Population Genetics
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DNA MARKER TYPES USEFUL FOR POTATO GENETICS
5.2.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism
5.2.2 Amplified fragment length polymorphism
5.2.3 Simple sequence repeat or microsatellite
5.2.5 Single-nucleotide polymorphism
5.3 PRINCIPLES OF LINKAGE MAP CONSTRUCTION
5.4 MOLECULAR MAPS OF POTATO
5.5 COMPARING THE POTATO WITH OTHER PLANT GENOMES
5.6 POPULATION GENETICS
Genetics of Morphological and Tuber Traits
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.1.1 The breeder’s perspective
6.1.2 What is heritable variation?
6.1.3 Morphological and tuber traits discussed in this chapter
6.2 CLASSICAL POTATO GENETICS WITH MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES
6.2.1 The characteristics of classical genetic analysis
6.5.3 Texture
6.5.4 Glycoalkaloids
6.5.6 Tuber size uniformity
Genetics of Resistance to Pests and Disease
7.1 RESISTANCE SCREENING
7.1.1 Field screening
7.1.2 Greenhouse screening
7.1.3 Laboratory screening
7.2 RESISTANCE GENETICS IN POTATO
7.2.1 Resistance breeding
7.2.2 Resistance genetics based on disease phenotype
7.3 MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF POTATO RESISTANCE
7.3.1 Experimental strategies for gene mapping and cloning
7.3.2 Resistance factors mapped in potato
7.3.3 Resistance genes cloned and characterized
7.3.4 Synteny of resistance loci in Solanaceae
7.3.5 Marker-assisted resistance breeding
Potato-Breeding Strategy
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN POTATO CROP
8.3 POTATO BREEDING AND THE NEED FOR NEW CULTIVARS
8.3.1 Potato breeding
8.3.2 Need for new cultivars
8.3.3 True potato seed
8.4 ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENTS AND END USES
8.4.1 Genotype by environment interactions
8.4.2 Ideotypes
8.5 GERMPLASM AVAILABLE
8.5.1 Wild species
8.5.2 Cultivated species
8.6 INTROGRESSION OF GENES FROM WILD SPECIES
8.6.3 Base broadening versus introgression
8.7 BREEDING CULTIVARS AT THE TETRAPLOID LEVEL FOR CLONAL PROPAGATION
8.7.1 Parents
8.7.2 Early generations
8.7.3 Intermediate and later generations
8.8 BREEDING CULTIVARS FOR TPS
8.9 GENETICALLY MODIFIED POTATOES
8.10 ACHIEVING DURABLE DISEASE AND PEST RESISTANCE
8.11 CONCLUSIONS
Genomics
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POTATO GENOME
9.3 GENE ISOLATION
9.3.1 Early gene cloning and expression studies
9.3.2 Map-based gene isolation
9.3.3 Use of candidate gene approaches for gene isolation
9.4 STRUCTURAL GENOMIC RESOURCES
9.4.1 Large-insert genomic libraries
9.4.2 Expressed sequence tag resources
9.5 ANALYSIS OF POTATO GENE EXPRESSION
9.6 MICROARRAYS
9.7 FUNCTIONAL GENOMIC RESOURCES
9.7.1 The phenotype gap
9.7.2 Transgenic approaches for the study of gene function
9.7.3 Transposon tagging
9.7.4 Virus-induced gene silencing
9.7.5 Activation tagging
9.9 PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS
9.10 GENOMIC DATABASES
9.11 SUMMARY
Potato Cytogenetics
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 BASIC CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND POLYPLOID COMPLEXES
10.3 GENOME AND SPECIES RELATIONSHIPS
10.4 KARYOTYPING OF POTATO SPECIES
10.5 CYTOGENETICS IN POTATO IMPROVEMENT
Above-Ground and Below-Ground Plant Development
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 GENERAL MORPHOLOGY
11.3 SPROUT DEVELOPMENT
11.4 THE SHOOT SYSTEM
11.5 THE LEAVES
11.6 THE STOLON SYSTEM
11.7 THE TUBERS
11.8 ORGANS OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
11.9 ROOT SYSTEM
Signalling the Induction of Tuber Formation
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
12.2.1 Photoregulation
12.3.1 Gibberellins
12.3.2 Cytokinins
12.5.2 Transcription factors from the TALE superclass
Photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and source–sink relations
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON METABOLISM
13.2.2 Carbon partitioning in mesophyll cells
13.2.3 Sucrose biosynthesis in source leaves
13.3 STARCH METABOLISM IN SOURCE LEAVES
13.3.1 Starch synthesis within the chloroplast
13.3.2 Starch breakdown in leaves
13.4 CARBON EXPORT AND LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT
13.4.2 Phloem loading
13.4.3 Long-distance transport in the phloem
13.5 CARBON UNLOADING INTO SINK ORGANS
13.5.2 Phloem unloading in the tuber
13.6 SUCROSE TO STARCH CONVERSION IN THE TUBER
13.6.2 Uptake of carbon into the amyloplast
13.6.3 Starch synthesis in potato tubers
13.7 SOURCE–SINK REGULATION BY SUGARS
Dormancy and Sprouting
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 TUBER DORMANCY CHARACTERISTICS
14.3 CELL BIOLOGY OF DORMANCY
14.4 GENE EXPRESSION DURING DORMANCY TRANSITION
14.5 HORMONAL REGULATION OF TUBER DORMANCY
14.5.1 Auxins
14.5.2 Abscisic acid
14.5.3 Ethylene
14.5.4 Gibberellins
14.5.5 Cytokinins
14.5.6 Other endogenous growth substances
14.6 SPROUT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL AGING
14.7 CONCLUSIONS
Molecular Physiology of the Mineral Nutrition of the Potato
15.1 INTRODUCTION
15.2 NITROGEN
15.2.1 Nitrogen uptake
15.2.2 Nitrogen assimilation
15.2.3 Transport of organic N between source and sink
15.3 PHOSPHORUS
15.3.1 Phosphate uptake
15.4 CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
Water Availability and Potato Crop Performance
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 DETERMINANTS AND CONTROLS OF WATER MOVEMENT
16.2.2 Plant water relations
16.3 ASSESSING PLANT WATER STATUS
16.4 POTATO PLANT RESPONSES TO DROUGHT AND BIOTIC STRESS
16.4.1 Leaf expansion
C concentrations
16.5 WATER USE, LEAF DYNAMICS AND POTATO PRODUCTIVITY
16.5.1 Water-use efficiency in different climates
16.5.2 Relative transpiration and leaf dynamics
16.5.3 Interactions between drought and biotic stresses
16.6 VARIETAL DIFFERENCES IN DROUGHT TOLERANCE
16.7 EFFECTS OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON QUALITY
Potato crop response to radiation and daylength
17.1 RADIATION
17.1.1 Development of radiation interception
17.1.2 Measurement of radiation interception
17.1.4 Radiation use efficiency
17.2 DAYLENGTH
17.2.1 Morphology
17.2.2 Tuber initiation
17.2.3 Short day sensitivity
17.2.4 Earliness
Responses of the Potato Plant to Temperature
18.1 INTRODUCTION
18.1.1 Background and warnings
18.1.2 Reader’s guide
18.2 SPROUT GROWTH, EMERGENCE AND CROP ESTABLISHMENT
18.3 THE SHOOT SYSTEM
18.3.1 Leaf appearance
18.3.2 Final leaf number
18.3.3 Leaf growth and leaf size
18.3.4 Life span of leaves and specific leaf area
18.3.5 Number of stems
18.3.6 Stem morphology
18.3.7 Stem branching
18.4 STOLONS
18.5 TUBERS
18.5.1 Tuber induction and tuber initiation
18.5.2 Tuber set
18.5.3 Tuber bulking
18.5.4 Dry matter partitioning to tubers and harvest index
18.5.5 Tuber yield
18.5.6 Tuber number
18.5.7 Tuber size distribution
18.5.8 Tuber quality
18.5.9 Tuber enzyme activity
18.6 INFLORESCENCES AND FLOWERS
18.7 ROOT SYSTEM
18.8 PHOTOSYNTHESIS, DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND DRY MATTER PARTITIONING
18.9 PARTIAL EXPOSURE
18.10 EFFECTS OF SHORT PERIODS OF CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE
18.11 DIURNAL TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS
18.12 PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF SEED TUBERS
18.13 SUMMARY
Response to the Environment: Carbon Dioxide
19.1 INTRODUCTION
20.2.1 Is potato grown in salt-affected areas?
20.3 INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CROPPING SALINE SOILS
20.4 MECHANISMS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS
20.4.1 What is known of salinity tolerance mechanisms in potato?
20.5 CLASSIFICATION OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN POTATO
20.6 EVALUATIONS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN POTATO
20.6.2 In vitro evaluations of salinity tolerance in potato
20.7.1 Water management for potato crops under salinity stress
20.7.2 Fertiliser management for potato crops under salinity stress
20.7.3 Climatic conditions modulate salinity effects on potato
20.8 PRODUCING SALINITY TOLERANT POTATO
20.8.1 Salinity-tolerant wild and/or primitive potato species
20.8.2 Domestication of wild salt-tolerant potato
20.8.3 Breeding for increased vigour and yield
20.8.5 Obtaining salinity tolerant potato through genetic engineering
20.9 SUMMARY
The Harvested Crop
21.1 INTRODUCTION
21.2 NUTRITIONAL VALUE
21.3 DRY MATTER
21.3.1 Carbohydrates
21.3.2 Protein
21.3.3 Vitamins
21.3.4 Allergens and anti-nutritionals
21.3.5 Glycoalkaloids
21.3.6 Other tuber metabolites
21.3.7 Minerals
21.4 FLESH AND SKIN COLOUR
21.4.1 Carotenoids
21.4.2 Anthocyanins
21.5 GREENING
21.6 MECHANICAL DAMAGE AND BRUISING
21.6.1 Enzymic browning
21.6.2 Structural and cellular changes
21.6.3 Field factors and tuber water status
21.7 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
Skin-Set, Wound Healing, and Related Defects
22.1 INTRODUCTION
22.2 NATIVE PERIDERM AND SKIN-SET
22.2.1 Native periderm formation
22.2.2 Skin-set: a part of native periderm maturation
22.2.3 Skin-set and native periderm physiology
22.2.4 Periderm architecture and skinning injury
22.2.5 Cellular changes associated with skin-set
22.3 WOUND HEALING
22.3.1 The process of tuber wound healing
22.3.2 Induction of suberization
22.3.3 Regulation of suberization
22.3.4 Environmental effects on suberization
22.3.5 Characteristics of the biopolymers that form suberin
22.3.6 Suberization: closing layer and wound periderm formation
22.3.7 Suberin biosynthesis and structure
22.3.8 Suberization and resistance to infection
22.4 RELATED DEFECTS
22.4.1 Wound-related tuber defects
22.4.2 Shatter bruising and tuber cracking
22.4.3 Blackspot and pressure/crush bruising
22.4.4 Growth cracks
22.4.5 Skinning
22.5 SUMMARY
23.1 INTRODUCTION
23.2.1 Calcium nutrition and tuber quality
23.2.2 Brown centre and internal brown spot
23.2.3 Hollow heart
23.2.4 Internal heat necrosis
23.2.5 Stem-end discolouration
23.2.6 Translucency
23.2.7 Mottling
23.3 SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS
23.4.1 Carbohydrates – starch
23.4.2 Carbohydrates – sugars
23.4.3 Factors affecting RS concentration in stored potatoes
23.4.4 Chemical maturity monitoring
Potato Flavour and Texture
24.1 INTRODUCTION
24.2 POTATO FLAVOUR
24.2.1 Non-volatile components
24.2.2 Glycoalkaloids and flavour
24.2.3 Volatile compounds
24.3 POTATO TUBER TEXTURE
Insect Pests in Potato
25.1 YIELD AND QUALITY EFFECTS
25.1.1 Defoliators
25.1.2 Sap feeders
25.1.3 Pathogen transmission
25.1.4 Root and tuber feeding
25.2 INSECT PESTS OF WORLDWIDE IMPORTANCE
25.2.1 Aphids
25.2.2 Colorado potato beetle
25.2.3 Potato tuber moths
25.2.4 Leafminers
25.3 REGIONAL PESTS
25.3.1 Leafhoppers
25.3.2 Potato psyllid
25.3.3 Thrips
25.3.4 White grubs
25.3.5 Wireworms
25.3.6 Ladybird beetles
25.3.7 Flea beetles
25.3.8 Andean potato weevils
25.3.9 Cutworms
25.4 INSECT CONTROL TACTICS
25.4.1 Insecticides
25.4.2 Host plant resistance
25.4.3 Biological control
25.5 CONCLUSIONS
The Nematode Parasites of Potato
26.1.1 Host range
26.1.2 Diseases
26.1.3 Biology
26.1.4 Dormant stage
26.2 ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (MELOIDOGYNE SPP.)
26.2.1 Disease
26.2.2 Biology
26.2.3 Spread
26.3 THE FALSE ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE NACOBBUS ABERRANS
26.3.1 Host range
26.3.2 Disease
26.3.3 Biology
26.3.4 Spread
26.4 VIRUS VECTOR NEMATODES (TRICHODORUS SPP.)
26.4.1 Disease
26.4.2 Biology
26.5 THE ROOT LESION NEMATODES (PRATYLENCHUS SPP.)
26.5.1 Disease
26.5.2 Biology
DITYLENCHUS DESTRUCTOR AND DITYLENCHUS DIPSACI
26.6.1 Host range
26.6.2 Disease
26.6.3 Biology
26.7 CONTROL
26.7.1 Prophylaxis
26.7.2 Cultural methods
26.7.3 Physical methods
26.7.4 Chemical treatments
26.7.5 Biological methods
26.7.6 Resistant varieties
26.8 CONCLUSIONS
Bacterial Pathogens of Potato
27.1 INTRODUCTION
27.2 PATHOGEN BIOLOGY
27.2.2 Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus
27.2.3 Pectolytic erwinias
27.2.4 Streptomyces scabies
27.3 PATHOLOGY
27.3.1 Symptoms and factors favouring symptom expression
27.3.2 Economic importance
27.3.3 Geographic distribution
27.4 ECOLOGY
27.4.1 Plant colonization
27.4.2 Survival
27.4.3 Dissemination
27.5 CONTROL
27.5.1 Use of clean seed
27.5.2 Inoculum reduction
27.5.3 Agronomic practices
27.6 PERSPECTIVES
Viruses: Economical Losses and Biotechnological Potential
28.1 INTRODUCTION
28.2 VIRUSES INFECTING POTATO
28.3 NEW AND EMERGING VIRUSES AND THEIR DETECTION
28.3.1 Molecular detection and identification
28.3.2 New viruses
28.3.3 Emerging viruses
28.4 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PVY
28.4.1 Mixed infections
28.4.2 Impact of primary and secondary infection
28.4.3 Costs to seed production
28.4.5 Aetiology and evolutionary perspectives
28.5.1 Use of potato viruses as gene vectors
Fungal and Fungus-Like Pathogens of Potato
30.1 INTRODUCTION
30.2 GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF POTATO
30.3 DEVELOPMENTS IN TRANSGENIC BIOLOGY
30.3.1 Protocol refinements
30.4 THE GENETIC ENGINEERING OF USEFUL TRAITS
30.4.1 Resistance to major pests and diseases
30.4.2 Tuber quality traits
30.4.3 Nutritional value
30.5 SUMMARY AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
Field-Testing of Transgenic Potatoes
31.1 INTRODUCTION
31.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF FIELD-TESTING TRANSGENIC POTATOES
31.3.1 Field confirmation of transgenic phenotype
31.3.2 Occurrence of off-types
31.4 THE DESIGN OF A FIELD-TESTING PROGRAMME
31.5 STRATEGIES TO REDUCE THE FREQUENCY OF OFF-TYPES
31.6 ASSESSMENT OF BIOSAFETY ISSUES
31.7 CONCLUSIONS
Soil-Free Techniques
32.1 INTRODUCTION
32.2 MINI-TUBER PRODUCTION
32.3 IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION TECHNIQUES
32.3.1 Axillary-bud proliferation
32.3.2 Micro-tuber production
32.3.3 Somatic embryogenesis
32.4 HYDROPONICS AND AEROPONICS
32.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS
Agronomic Practices
33.1 INTRODUCTION
33.2 PLANNING AND PREPARATION
33.2.1 Market
33.2.2 Calendar
33.2.3 Seed
33.2.4 Site selection
33.2.5 Soil analysis
33.2.6 Fertiliser
33.3 SOIL MANAGEMENT
33.3.1 Cultivation
33.3.2 Control of soil-borne pests and diseases
33.3.3 Weed control
33.3.4 Irrigation
33.4 CROP ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT
33.4.1 Planting
33.4.2 Crop protection
33.4.4 Defoliation
33.4.5 Harvesting
33.5 POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND STORAGE
33.5.1 Crop monitoring
Minerals, Soils and Roots
34.1 INTRODUCTION
34.2 OPTIMIZING THE APPLICATION OF FERTILISERS
34.2.1 Nitrogen
34.2.2 Potassium
34.2.3 Phosphorus
34.3.1 Nitrogen
34.3.2 Potassium
34.3.3 Phosphorus
34.4 SOIL CONDITIONS AND POTATO GROWTH
34.5 SUMMARY
Mathematical Models of Plant Growth and Development
35.1 INTRODUCTION
35.2 AIMS AND APPROACHES
35.2.1 Top-down/bottom-up
35.2.2 Source-driven/sink-based
35.3 APPLICATIONS
35.3.1 Potential yields
35.3.2 Actual yields
35.3.3 Outstanding difficulties and inadequacies – root growth
35.3.4 Ideotyping
35.3.5 Forecasting
35.4 CALIBRATION/VALIDATION AND OTHER DIFFICULTIES
35.4.1 Sensitivity analysis
35.4.2 Calibration and validation
35.4.3 Modellers tend to believe their models
35.5 FUTURE WORK
Decision Support Systems in Potato Production
36.1 DEFINITION
36.2 OPPORTUNITY
36.3 CURRENT AVAILABILITY
36.3.1 Late blight
36.3.2 Fertiliser
36.3.3 Irrigation
36.3.4 Tuber size distribution
36.4 TAKE-UP IN GENERAL
36.5 THE WAY FORWARD
36.5.1 Barriers to uptake
36.5.2 The customer
36.6 CONCLUSION
Index
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Potato Biology and Biotechnology

Potato Biology and Biotechnology

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