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FM Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants

FM Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants

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Factory Mutual
7-43 
Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets
17-2 
May 1999
Supersedes February 1974Page 1 of 50
LOSS PREVENTION
IN
CHEMICAL PLANTS
Table of Contents
Page
1.0
SCOPE
,..................................................................................................................................................
3 2.0
RECOMMENDATIONS
...........................................................................................................................
3 
2.1
Process Safety Management (PSM) System .................................................................................. 3
2.1.1
General .................................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2 Accountability and Responsibility .......................................................................................... 4 2.1.3 Process Safety Knowledge and Documentation ................................................................... 4 2.1.4 Process Safety Review (Process Hazard Analysis) .............................................................. 4 2.1.5 Management of Change ........................................................................................................ 5 2.1.6 Process and Equipment (Mechanical) Integrity .................................................................... 5 2.1.7 Incident Investigation ............................................................................................................. 5 2.1.8 Training and Performance ..................................................................................................... 6 2.1.9 Human Factors ...................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.10 Standards, Codes and Laws ............................................................................................... 7 2.2 Highly Protected Risk (HPR) ........................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Principles
of
Inherent Safety ........................................................................................................... 8 
3.0
DISCUSSION
..........................................................................................................................................
8 
3.1
Process Risk Management Strategies ............................................................................................ 8 
3.1.1
Tier 1 « Inherent Safety ......................................................................................................... 9 3.1.2 Tier 2 «Passive ..................................................................................................................... 9 3.1.3 Tier
Active ...................................................................................................................... 10 3.1.4 Tier 4 -Procedural ...............................................................................................................
11 
3.1.5 Summary ..............................................................................................................................
11 
3.2 Process Safety Management .........................................................................................................
11 
3.2.1 Accountability and Responsibility ........................................................................................
11 
3.2.2 Process Safety Knowledge and Documentation .................................................................
12 
3.2.3 Process Safety Review (Process Hazard Analysis) ........................
~
................................... 14 3.2.4 Process Risk Management ................................................................................................. 16 3.2.5 Management of Change ...................................................................................................... 19 3.2.6 Process and Equipment(Mechanical) Integrity .................................................................. 22 3.2.7 Incident Investigation ........................................................................................................... 24 3.2.8 Training and Performance ...................................................................................................
27 
3.2.9 Human Factors .................................................................................................................... 29 3.2.10 Standards, Codes, and Laws ............................................................................................ 33
3.2.11
Audits and Corrective Actions ........................................................................................... 33 3.2.12 Emergency Response Planning ........................................................................................
36 
3.3 Concepts of Highly Protected Risk ................................................................................................
37 3.3.1
Requirements to Achieve
HPR
Status.
..
............................................................................. 37 3.4 Concepts
of
Inherent Safety .......................................................................................................... 43 
3.4.1
Intensification ....................................................................................................................... 43 3.4.2 Substitution .......................................................................................................................... 43 3.4.3 Attenuation .......................................................................................................................... 44 3.4.4 Limitation
of
Effects ............................................................................................................. 44 3.4.5 Simplification/Error Tolerance ..............................................................................................
45 
©1999 Factory Mutual Engineering Corp.
All
rights reserved. No part
01
this document may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted. in whole or in part, in any form
or
by any means. electronic, mechanical. photocopying, recording. or otherwise, without writtenpermission of Factory Mutual Engineering Corp.
 
7-4317-2 Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants
Page 2 
Factory Mutual Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets4.0 BIBLIOGRAPHy
....
...............................................................................................................................
45 
4.1
Process Safety and Risk Management ......................................................................................... 45 4.2 Highly Protected Risk Guidelines for Chemical Industry ..............................................................
45 
4.3 Concepts
of
Inherent Safety ..........................................................................................................
46 
4.4 Preventive Main.tenance ................................................................................................................ 46 4.5 Chemical Hazard Information ........................................................................................................
46 
APPENDIX
A: 
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND REGULATORY CODES OVERSEEING CHEMICAL PLANT PROCESS SAFETY
.......................................................................... 47 
A.1
Mandatory Regulations Covering PSM and Related Chemical Industry Safety Oversight .......... 47
A.1.1
Europe ................................................................................................................................. 47 A.1.2 United States ...................................................................................................................... 47 A.2 Voluntary Chemical Industry Programs and Resources ............................................................... 49 A.2.1 Australia ..............................................................................................................................
50 
A.2.2 Canada ................................................................................................................................
50 
A.2.3 India ....................................................................................................................................
50 
A.2.4 Far East .............................................................................................................................. 50 A.2.5 South America .....................................................................................................................
50 
A.2.6 United Kingdom .................................................................................................................. 50 A.2.7 United States ......................................................................................................................
50 
List of Tables
Table
1.
Comparison of OSHA and
EPA
Thresholds of the More Common Hazardous Chemicals .......... 48
©1999 Factory Mutual Engineering Corp. Ali rights reserved.
 
7-43
Loss Prevention
in
Chemical Plants
17-2
Factory Mutual
Property
Loss
Prevention
Data
Sheets
Page 31.0 SCOPEThis data sheet describes general principles and concepts of chemical risk loss prevention and the minimum requirements for a chemical operation to qualify as a Highly Protected Risk (HPR). Other Factory Mutual(FM) data sheets, listed in Section 4.0, provide specific guidance on protection concepts and design requirements within this HPR framework.An HPR chemical facility is one that meets the highest standards of property loss prevention including management commitment, process control, fixed active and passive protection where needed, and employeetraining and awareness.Process safety management (PSM) as a way of conducting business has been developed over many yearsto guide the chemical process industry toward safer facilities before being adopted by various regulatoryagencies.
It
can and should be considered the foundation of all loss prevention activities in this industry aswell as related industries with hazardous chemical processes. Process safety management is a necessary component of an HPR facility to minimize or prevent episodic releases or events that can cause property damage and business interruption.A number of U.S. national and state regulations, as well as those of the European Union and other intemational regulators, have adopted PSM in one form or another. (Highlights of some of these regulations are
in
the Appendix.) This data sheet is not meant to address issues associated with regulatory compliance butalso does not introduce any conflicts with these regulations.As a fundamental subset of
PSM
and HPR concepts, principles of inherent safety, as they apply to the chemical industry, are also discussed. By practicing the concept of inherent safety, a hazardous plant or process can be significantly reduced in overall risk.The concepts of Highly Protected Risk, process safety management, and inherent safety are
aU
interrelated and apply to chemical facilities as well as non-chemical facilities with chemical processes. The levelof detail to which PSM principles are implemented is in proportion to the level of hazard of the operation. PSMprinciples are not a cookbook to be followed but a philosophy to
be
applied according to need.2.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1
Process
Safety Management (PSM)
System
2.
1.
1
General
2.1.1.1 Chemical plants and hazardous chemical operations in other plants should have a process safetymanagement system
in
place to assure that the following (or equivalent) elements· of process safety are integrated into plant operations:
a.
Accountability and Responsibility
b.
Process Safety Knowledge and Documentation
c.
Process Safety Review (Process Hazard Analysis)
d.
Process Risk Management
e.
Management of Change
1.
Process and Equipment (Mechanical) Integrity
g.
Incident Investigation
h.
Training and Performance
I.
Human Factors
j.
Standards, Codes, and Laws
k.
Audits and Corrective Actions
L
Emergency Response Planning
©1999 Factory Mutual Engineering Corp. All rights reserved.

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