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Master Gardener Handbook

Master Gardener Handbook

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Published by Sharad Bhutoria

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Published by: Sharad Bhutoria on Aug 04, 2010
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20 - 2
Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
I. Beans, Snap
A.Food ValueA pound of raw green bean pods brokeninto 1- or 2-inch lengths yields about 3 2/3cups of cooked beans. They are composedof 90.1 percent water, 145 calories, 8.6grams of protein, 0.9 gram of fat, and 32.2grams of carbohydrates.B.DescriptionSnap beans grown from the immature podoriginated in Central America and werewidely distributed by the Indians, basicallyas bush and pole beans. Bush beans ripenearlier, but pole bean yields are higher.C.Yield Per PersonIt is estimated that each person will con-sume 6 to 12 pounds of garden fresh beansand 12 to 14 pounds of canned or frozenbeans per year. Each foot of row spaceplanted to beans produces an average of 0.35 to 0.5 pound of snap beans. A 20- to30-foot row of beans produces enoughbeans for one person.D.SeedbedBeans do best on sandy loam soil thatwarms up early in the spring and has a soilpH from 7.0 to 7.5 but can tolerate a soil pHnear 8.0. Cultivate the soil for plantingwhen the moisture in the soil allows the for-mation of a soil ball that crumbles intopieces under finger pressure. Cultivate tomix crop residues and organic matter intothe top 7 to 8 inches of soil, destroy currentweed growth, and provide a granular soilbed for seeding. Overcultivation causes thesoil to become powdery or to crust.E.Seed TimeThe best time to seed beans is after the lastkilling frost in the spring, when day tem-perature is 65°F and the night is expected toaverage above 55°F. Select early maturingvarieties that ripen in 55 to 70 days.F.Planting Specifications:
Seed per foot6 to 8 Row width18 to 30 inchesGermination6 to 14 daysSeed depth1 1/2 to 2 inchesOunce per foot0.13Plant spacing2 to 4 inches
G.Planting SuggestionsBeans need a warm soil to grow and goodspacing for sunlight. Some gardeners aretempted to soak their seeds before planting.This practice injures many of the bean vari-eties, and could result in poor germinationand diseased, weak plants.H.FertilizerBeans are a legume and can produce someof their own nitrogen (N) because of their Nfixation ability. The seed may be inoculatedwith rhizobium to stimulate additional fixa-tion. To supplement this, add a preplant fer-tilizer of 0.2 pound of N for each 100 squarefeet. After the first heavy bloom and set of pods, sidedress with 1 1/2 ounces of ammo-nium sulfate.The amount of fertilizer applied should bebased on a soil test report from the Univer-sity of Idaho Analytical Laboratory or a pri-vate testing laboratory. Plants are easilyover- or under-fertilized.
Chapter 20
G. F. Gardner
George F. Gardner, Former Extension Educator, Bannock County, Pocatello
The author compiled information for Chapters 19and 20 from the Virginia, Utah, Oregon, and Wash-ington Master Gardener handbooks and adapted it toIdaho conditions.
20 - 3
Chapter 20, The Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook
I.CultivationCultivate (shallow) when necessary to re-move other plant competition. Deep cultiva-tion close to the plants destroys much of theroot system and reduces yield and quality.J.WateringBeans have a water stress point of 60 per-cent. When the percentage of water in soildrops below this level, the plant will start todehydrate, and growth will be slowed downor stopped. To estimate water percentage,take a handful of soil at the 6-inch depth andsqueeze it into a ball in your hand. If itforms a ball and your hand feels like it has afilm of water on it, the soil moisture will be60 percent or higher. If the soil moisture isbelow 60 percent, you will not feel the filmof water on your hand, and it is time to wa-ter again. Plant growth can suffer from toomuch or too little water. The symptoms willbe the same. As the percentage of soil mois-ture drops the oxygen level in the soil in-creases.K.InsectsLygus bugs, nitidulid beetles, aphids includ-ing the bean aphid, army worms and cut-worms, grasshoppers, pea leaf weevil, cornmaggot, slug, spider mites, cucumberbeetles, and wireworms create problems inbeans.L.DiseasesCommon diseases include brown spot, curlytop, halo blight, mosaics, necrosis, root rot,rust, sclerotinia disease, white mold, seedrot, and seedling blight.M.HarvestingBeans can be harvested when pods are 3inches long but before the seed is muchlarger than the diameter of a pencil lead.Harvest every 3 to 4 days to prevent overmaturity. Frequent picking stimulates theplants to produce new pods and helps to en-sure a heavy harvest. Disturbing wet vinesspreads rust and other diseases.
II. Beets
A.Food ValueA pound of raw, peeled, common red beetsconsists of 90.9 percent water, 5.0 grams of protein, 0.5 gram of fat, 23.7 grams of carbo-hydrates, and 145 calories.B.DescriptionBeets are native to the Mediterranean areaof north Africa, Europe, and west Asia.They are cool weather biennials that aregrown as annuals for their leaves and roots.The roots may be round, flat, or elongated.They are usually red in color, but there areseveral golden varieties.C.Yield Per PersonOn the average, each person consumes 7 to12 pounds of fresh beets during a growingseason, and an additional 12.5 to 30 poundsof canned and frozen beets. Each foot of row space should produce approximately1.25 pounds of beets.D.SeedbedBeets grow best in sandy loam and peatsoils. Heavy clay soils can be improved bythe addition of organic matter. Seedbedpreparation should start when the soil hassufficient moisture to form a ball thatcrumbles into medium-sized fragments.Cultivate to mix crop residues and organicmatter into the top 7 to 8 inches of soil, de-stroy current weeds, and provide a smallgranular-type bed for planting. Overculti-vated soil becomes powdery and has a ten-dency to crust. The ideal pH for beets isfrom 6.0 to 7.5, although a pH value near8.0 is acceptable.E.Seed TimeThe best time to seed beets is 2 to 4 weeksbefore the last killing frost in the springwhen soil temperature is 50°F or above. Se-lect early maturing varieties that ripen in 55to 65 days.F.Planting Specifications:
Ounce per foot0.01Seed per foot15 to 20 Row width2 to 18 inchesGermination10 to 15 daysSeed depth1/2 to 1 inchPlant spacing2 to 3 inches Row spacing12 inches
G.Planting SuggestionsBeets need a cool soil to grow and goodspacing for sunlight. Their frost tolerance is

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