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Maximal Service Area Problem for Optimal Siting of Emergency Facilities

Maximal Service Area Problem for Optimal Siting of Emergency Facilities

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Published by Vini Indriasari
My paper in International Journal of Geographical Information Science (IJGIS).
My paper in International Journal of Geographical Information Science (IJGIS).

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Vini Indriasari on Aug 04, 2010
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This article was downloaded by:
[2009 Universiti Putra Malaysia] 
9 July 2010 
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International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713599799
Maximal service area problem for optimal siting of emergency facilities
Vini Indriasari
; Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud
; Noordin Ahmad
; Abdul Rashid M. Shariff 
GIS and Geomatic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Department of CivilEngineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Geomatics Engineering Unit, Universiti PutraMalaysia, Malaysia
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti PutraMalaysia, MalaysiaOnline publication date: 01 March 2010
To cite this Article
Indriasari, Vini , Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi , Ahmad, Noordin and Shariff, Abdul Rashid M.(2010)'Maximal service area problem for optimal siting of emergency facilities', International Journal of GeographicalInformation Science, 24: 2, 213 — 230
To link to this Article: DOI:
Full terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThis article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
Research ArticleMaximal service area problem for optimal siting of emergency facilities
GIS and Geomatic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia§Geomatics Engineering Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,Malaysia
Received 4 June 2008; in final form 1 October 2008
)Geographic information systems (GIS) have been integrated to many applica-tions in facility location problems today. However, there are still some GIScapabilities yet to be explored thoroughly. This study utilizes the capability of GIS to generate service areas as the travel time zones in a facility location modelcalled the maximal service area problem (MSAP). The model is addressed toemergency facilities for which accessibility is an important requirement. Theobjective of the MSAP is to maximize the total service area of a specified numberof facilities. In the MSAP, continuous space is deemed as the demand area, thusthe optimality was measured by how large the area could be served by a set of facilities. Fire stations in South Jakarta, Indonesia, were chosen as a case study.Three heuristics, genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search (TS) and simulatedannealing (SA), were applied to solve the optimization problem of the MSAP.The final output of the study shows that the three heuristics managed to providebetter coverage than the existing coverage with the same number of fire stationswithin the same travel time. GA reached 82.95% coverage in 50.60min, TS did83.20% in 3.73min, and SA did 80.17% in 52.42min, while the existing coverageonly reaches 73.82%.
: Facility location; Emergency facilities; Service area; Geographicinformation systems; Network analysis
1. Introduction
Studies about facility location problems, also known as Location Science, haveappeared in the literature since the beginning of the 1970s (e.g. Church and ReVelle1974, Toregas and ReVelle 1972, Toregas
et al.
1971), and even earlier (e.g. Hogg1968). Problems in facility location were usually denoted as optimization problemsin operations research (OR) framework which should be solved by certainalgorithms in order to optimize single or multiple objective functions. The objectiveis either to minimize costs or to maximize benefits. The problems include locatinghospitals, schools, power plants, ambulances, fire stations, pipelines, conservationareas and warehouses. Early facility location modeling could only work with smalldataset and involve simple functions to measure spatial interaction between facilities
*Corresponding author. Email: arm@eng.upm.edu.my
International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Vol. 24, No. 2, February 2010, 213–230
International Journal of Geographical Information Science
ISSN 1365-8816 print/ISSN 1362-3087 online
2010 Taylor & Francishttp://www.tandf.co.uk/journalsDOI: 10.1080/13658810802549162
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [2009  U ni v e r si ti  P u t r a  M al a y si a]  A t : 02 :47 9  J ul y 2010
and demands. Currently, with the advent of geographic information systems (GIS)and sophisticated computer technology, decision making in facility site selection canbe enhanced into a larger dataset with more complicated data structures, moreaccurate spatial measurement, spatial analysis and spatial modeling. GIS capabilityto represent spatial objects as points, line, or polygons has increased the flexibility of entity representations in facility location modeling no longer limited to points as ithas been (Miller 1996). Furthermore, GIS capability to perform surface modelingallows location science to extend its version into three-dimensional problems.Several studies have integrated GIS into location modeling (e.g. Murray andTong 2007, Liu
et al.
2006, Li and Yeh 2005, Aertz and Heuvelink 2002, Yeh andCow 1996). However, there are still some GIS capabilities yet to be exploredthoroughly, requiring further investigation into how they may be effectivelyimplemented to improve solutions for facility location problems. This study tries toenhance the location selection process by utilizing the GIS capability to generateservice areas as travel time zones, within an emergency facility context. The objectiveof this study is to establish service coverage modeling in a continuous demandregion, with road accessibility considerations. This study emerges from the fact thatmost conventional models only define a facility’s service area simply as a circular-shaped region based on a specified radius. Such a definition might be appropriatefor facilities which are not influenced by topographical barriers, like sirens ortelecommunication transmitters. But for particular facilities like fire stations,ambulances and delivery services, accessibility is an important requirement.Through a network analysis, GIS allows the service area to be calculated by takinginto account the road access, barriers and road network attributes. This advantagefrom GIS should be incorporated in the service area calculation to obtain a morerealistic model.
Emergency facility location problem
Facility location modeling introduced in this paper is addressed to emergencyfacilities. Not all location models are suitable to be adopted for emergency facilities.In fact, certain models are only appropriate for certain types of facilities. To selectan appropriate model, we should understand the objective of the model and thenature of facility services. For example, we have location models concerningminimizing distance called the P-median problem (PMP) and P-center problem(PCP). The PMP has the objective to minimize the total or average distance betweenfacilities and demands assigned to them, whereas the PCP has the objective tominimize the farthest distance (Klose and Drexl 2005, Hamacher and Nickel 1998).We also have other models concerning optimizing service coverage, such as thelocation set covering problem (LSCP) and maximal covering location problem(MCLP). In the LSCP, the optimum number of facilities is one aspect of the solutionto the problem, and the constraint requires for all demands must be covered by atleast one facility (Toregas and ReVelle 1972). In the MCLP, the number of facilitiesis known a priori and the objective becomes to maximize services for demands(Church and ReVelle 1974). Which model is suitable for emergency facilities?Emergency facilities have a unique characteristic in the way they measure benefits.Typically, the objective of facility location problem is either to minimize costs ormaximize benefits. In the case of emergency services, the objective is often stated asthe minimization of losses to the public (Aly and White 1978). This objective isequivalent to the maximization of benefits. Typical illustrations of emergency214
V. Indriasari 
et al
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [2009  U ni v e r si ti  P u t r a  M al a y si a]  A t : 02 :47 9  J ul y 2010

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